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of development of sectors other than fisheries and agriculture slowed the recovery of economy, GDP contracted by 1.3% in 1967 and by 5.5% in 1969 ( Hagstofa Íslands 2019a ,b).
In 1970, Iceland joined the European Free Trade Association (EFTA), and the national system of taxes and duties had to be revised. The then-existing tax system had been adapted to the needs of strong special interest groups, especially those involved in fisheries and agriculture. Icelandic agriculture based its existence largely on subventions. Fishing firms paid considerably lower taxes
retrenchment in the target companies, unsustainable debt levels, compensation levels of fund managers, and, last but not least, tax issues. Cf. J. Robertson, Private Equity Funds , 14 New Political Economy 4, p. 545-555 (2009), and H. Ordower, The Regulation of Private Equity, Hedge Funds, and State Funds , 58 The American Journal of Comparative Law (supplement), p. 295-321 (2010). For a broader analysis of the development of private equity in Europe, see N. Badu & M. Montalban, Analyzing the uneven development of private equity in Europe: legal origins and diversity of
practice, however, it is not always easy to distinguish between subsequent verification (3.6) and common use of evidence (3.3). It may not always be important to do so either, but, in our view, it is important to be aware of the difference on a principal level.
If a subsequent verification is carried out, it could thus mean that an investment (for example, in a research and development project) subsequently fell well and that the outcome, the final result, may control the assessment regarding the right to deduction of the costs for the investment. At least from a
This article aims to describe the development in the field of corporate tax law in Iceland, from both legal and economic point of view, with a focus on measures taken to protect the tax base and in order to try to make Iceland an attractive place for investment and establishment companies. First, there will be a brief general description of the development of the corporate tax rate in Iceland since 2004 and an overview of new taxes that have been introduced for companies over the past ten years. Second, there will be an analysis of how the Icelandic legal framework provides for incentives for investment and establishment of companies in Iceland. Third, this discussion is to be followed by a section on the steps Iceland has taken in order to combat tax avoidance. Fourth, there is a general description of the economic development for the corporate taxation in Iceland since 1990 and fifth, there is brief discussion of the development of revenues from the corporate tax. Sixth, a short overview of the real investment in the Icelandic economy is given, and finally, the main conclusions of this article will be summed up with a short discussion on the main challenges Iceland is currently facing in the field of corporate taxation in today’s globalised economy.
economic growth.” Journal of public economics 89.5 (2005): 1027-1043.
Lindhe, Tobias, Jan Södersten, and Ann Öberg. “Economic effects of taxing different organizational forms under the Nordic dual income tax.” International Tax and Public Finance 11.4 (2004): 469-485.
Lodin, Sven-Olof (2011). The making of tax law : The development of the Swedish tax system.
Lohse, Tim, Pascalau, Razvan and Thomann, Christian (2014). Public Enforcement of Securities Market Rules: Resource-based evidence from the Securities Exchange
If citizens and businesses are subject to international double taxation when they operate or invest across borders, it may have harmful effects on the exchange of goods and services as well as on movements of capital, technology, and persons. As a consequence, approximately during the past 100 years, a global network consisting primarily of bilateral tax treaties has been developed with the purpose of removing the obstacles that double taxation constitute for the development of economic relations between countries. Cf. the introduction to the
Some 100 states have participated in the development of a new multilateral convention designed for the swift implementation of the tax-treaty-related measures agreed upon as part of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development’s (OECD) so-called Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) Project. The convention is entitled “The Multilateral Convention to Implement Tax Treaty Related Measures to Prevent Base Erosion and Profit Shifting” and is often referred to as the Multilateral Instrument (MLI). A text was agreed upon in November
We study the development in the Danish corporate income tax base and the corporate income tax revenue in the period from 1990 until present. Measured in per cent of GDP the CIT base has out-paced the revenue due to parallel CIT rate cuts and base broadening reforms. We seek to explain the development in the CIT base and discuss whether this is threatened by base erosion and profit shifting.
Describing the development in the CIT tax base is a comprehensive and complex task and to pin-point one single cause is not possible. But it is possible to point to elements which have contributed to the development. We conclude that there exists a challenge in terms of international tax competition but find no evidence of the Danish CIT base suffering from this. The challenge for policy makers is designing a tax system which on one side secures sufficient revenue and on the other hand is internationally competitive.
This section contains three book reviews. First the book Swedish Taxation, Development since 1862 is reviewed. This volume comprises six studies that examine the development of Swedish taxation from 1862 to 2013, and will likely be of great value in future Nordic tax research because of its comprehensiveness. The second review is about a book written in Swedish:Momsfri sjukvård (The VAT exemption for health care). This volume discusses a topical issue and presents convincing recommendations for changes in the Swedish VAT legislation. Finally, the Danish book International Skatteret, i et dansk perspektiv (International Tax Law, in a Danish perspective) is presented as highly recommended literature for students and practitioners in the field of international tax law. This volume discusses and illustrates general matters in international tax law, as well as specific matters relevant for Danish international tax law.