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The Foundations of the Polish Study of Law on Sustainable Development in Environmental Protection and for Keeping International and Domestic Peace and Security (Thoughts on the 100th Anniversary of the Birth of Professor Karol Wolfke)

. Równy, Rio+20 dla wdrażania zrównoważonego rozwoju a prawo ochrony środowiska i jego nauka w Polsce (2013). Sachs JD, The Age of Sustainable Development (2015). Stiglitz JE, Kaldor M (eds) Quest for security, protection without protectionism and the challenge of global governance ( 2013). Weizsäcker EU von, Lovins AB, Lovins LH, Mnożnik Cztery, podwojony dobrobyt – dwukrotnie mniejsze zużycie zasobów naturalnych, Nowy Raport dla Klubu Rzymskiego (1999). Wolfke K, Międzynarodowe prawo środowiska (tworzenie i egzekwowanie) (1979

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Politics and Constitutional Law: A Distinction without a Difference?


This article examines the relationship between Politics and Law in U.S. Supreme Court decision-making. It argues that three major developments in recent decades have combined to undermine the Court’s status as a legal and judicial institution, and instead define it as political actor, motivated by ideology and the personal policy predilections of the Court’s Justices. The first of these elements is the increasingly political and partisan nature of the Supreme Court appointment process, as witnessed by the recent Gorsuch and Kavanaugh nominations. The behaviour of the President and Senators in these controversial appointments conclusively demonstrates that the country’s leading politicians view the Court as primarily a political body rather than a legal one. The second element of the assault on the Court’s status as a judicial institution is the rise in influence of the behaviouralist school of Supreme Court analysis. Beginning with the work of academics such as Glendon Schubert, the behaviouralists employed new methods and theories in an attempt to debunk the Legal Model of Supreme Court decision-making and to replace it with what is known today as the Attitudinal Model. It forcibly argues that Supreme Court Justices are political in intent and decision, with legal language and arguments being no more than judicial camouflage to disguise their true nature. This applies equally to both conservative and liberal justices. The article identifies the third element of the assault on the status of the Court as a legal institution as coming from Originalist scholars, activists and judges who accuse liberal Justices of having abandoned traditional interpretive methods in favour of redefining the language of the Constitution to suit their progressive political agenda. Originalists acknowledge that their own interpretive methods may lead to results deemed unacceptable to contemporary Americans, but argue that it the duty of the political branches of government, not the courts, to modernise policy and practice. This article concludes that while Originalism has genuine appeal as a theory of interpretation, it is nevertheless both impractical and undesirable. Moreover, rather than returning the Court to the Legal Model, the Originalist campaign has only served to persuade many that the Attitudinal Model is an accurate one. However, the article also argues that the break with Originalism by the Warren Court over segregation has developed into a wholesale change in the Court’s role in American government, one that ill-becomes the unelected judiciary in a representative democracy. It is argued here that the best way to restore the legal and judicial identity of the Court would be a return to the emphasis on ‘judicial role’, once championed by great jurists such as Learned Hand, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Louis Brandeis and John Harlan II. Judicial modesty and restraint would distinguish the Court from the political branches of American government. The Court should decide less and only where the case for a decision of unconstitutionality is very clear and very compelling.

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At the Crossroads of Law and Ideology: The Ideology of Law as a Reflection of Social Ontology?

Revista de Sociologia 51. Steger Manfred B and James Paul, ‘Levels of Subjective Globalization: Ideologies, Imaginaries, Ontologies’ (2013) 12 Perspectives on Global Development and Technology 17. Valadier Paul, ‘Jacques Maritain’s Personalist Conception of Human Dignity’ in Düwell Marcus, Braarvig Jens, Brownsword Roger and Mieth Dietmar (eds), The Cambridge Handbook of Human Dignity: Interdisciplinary Perspectives (CUP 2014). Wrenn Mary V, ‘The Social Ontology of Fear and Neoliberalism’ (2014) 72 Review of Social Economy

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Custom in the Present International Law of the Sea

international (2004) 32. Boyle A, ‘Further Development of the 1982 Convention on the Law of the Sea: Mechanisms for Change’ in D Freestone, R Barens, DM Ong (eds), The Law of the Sea. Progress and Prospects (2006). Boyle A, Chinkin Ch, The Making of International Law (2007). Bruderlein C, ‘Custom in international humanitarian law’ (1991) 285 International Review of the Red Cross 581. Churchill R, ‘Some reflections on the Operation of the Dispute Settlement System of the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea During its First Decade’ in D Freestone, R

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A New Member State in the EU Internal Security System – The Polish Perspective

References Menkes J, ‘Od współpracy policyjnej do „przestrzeni wolności, bezpieczeństwa i sprawiedliwości’ (1997) 3 Sprawy Międzynarodowe. Menkes J, ‘Poszerzenie Unii a II i III filar integracji - perspektywy, zagrożenia, warunki’ in C Mik (ed), Polska w Unii Europejskiej perspektywy, warunki, szanse, zagrożenia (Toruń 1997). Haidt J, The Righteous Mind: Why Good People Are Divided by Politics and Religion (New York 2012). Galtung J, Peace and Peaceful Means: Peace, Conflict, Development and Civilisation (London 1996). Walt SM

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The Environmental Education Dimensions for Sustainable Development

environmental education. 10. European Comission. (2008). Attitudes of European citizens towards the environment. Special Eurobarometer.68.2, 11. Guvernul Romaniei. (2008). Strategia Nationala pentru Dezvoltarea Durabila a Romaniei. 12. Hoggan, J. (2009). Climate cover-up. Vancouver/Toronto/Berkeley: D./ M. Publisher. Inc. 13. Iovan, Martian. (2014). Eco-Education: A Required Element of Public Policies for Sustainable Social and Economic Development, in

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The Continuity of the Constitutions: The Examples of the Baltic States and Georgia

to the new constitutions: some thoughts on the development of constitutional regulation’ in Modern constitution: studies on the constitutional regulation of the foreign states (Mykolo Romerio Universitetas 2005)]. Kūris Pranas, ‘Lietuvos nepriklausomos valstybės atkūrimas ir tarptautinė teisė’ in Kovo 11-oji - Lietuvos Valstybės Nepriklausomybės atkūrimo diena (Žaltvykslė 2008) [Kūris, Pranas ‘The restoration of the independent Lithuanian state and international law’ in 11th March - day of the restoration of the independence of the Lithuanian State

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Custom in International Economic Law

Study of the Law of the Constitution (1915). Góralczyk W, Sawicki S, Prawo międzynarodowe publiczne w zarysie (2009). Gunnigham N, J Rees, ‘Industry Self-Regulation: an Institutional Perspective’ (1997) 19(4) Law and Policy 390. Hart HLA, The Concept of Law (1994). Koch S, ‘A Typology of Political Conditionality Beyond Aid: Conceptual Horizons Based on Lessons from the European Union’ (2015) 75 World Development 97. Lepard BD, Customary International Law: a New Theory with practical Applications (2010). MacGibbon I, ‘Some

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