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Social market economy (SME) is a socio-economic model which attempts to unite the freedom of a competitive market economy with social equilibrium and progress. It is seen as a “third path” besides a purely liberal market economy and an economy which is heavily regulated by the state – in the SME there is an intermediate degree of regulation. Historically, the model corresponds to the real economic policy of the German Federal Republic after the 1950s, thus it is sometimes called Rhine capitalism. According to the Treaty of Lisbon from 2007, the European Union pursues a competitive social market economy with full employment and social progress. On one hand, this model wishes to exploit the advantages of a free market economy, especially its high efficiency in the production of goods, while on the other hand it uses state intervention to correct for potential negative outcomes from market processes. Further characteristics of this model are: ensuring competition, free price formation, private property, motivating performance through profit aspirations as well as guarding personal freedoms. Last but not least, this model encompasses a strong structural policy by encouraging weaker geographical regions or industries. Therefore, it is highly probable that such a socio-economic model might be the appropriate alternative to fuel a sustainable growth of the Romanian economy. Using county level data, from the National Institute of Statistics and from the National Office of the Trade Register, for the year 2015 we show that the Romanian economy is highly polarized with a few growth poles (islands) and a large number of underdeveloped units. Thus, it becomes obvious that these important disparities will hinder a future sustainable development and by consequence a clear “road-map” represented by this economic model might prove to be a viable solution for the Romanian economy.
The purpose of this article is to inform as many persons as possible on the present situation of doctors in Romania, to present more theoretical and practical elements that lead to the development of a sustainable career in the Romanian medical system. So I tried to get as much information about the current situation of the medical system, to obtain a certain confirmation of what was said by those working in the system. Gradually, I found out about the hospital problems, the insufficient budget allocated annually by the mismanagement, media campaigns of doctor denigration, the increasingly precarious health conditions of Romanians, the colossal businesses of the pharmaceutical industry, the heavily discussed and postponed Health Law, that managed to pull a lot of people in the street, and many other items that are not only intended to sound an alarm regarding the condition of medical workers in Romania. Besides the researches and the relationships on the medical education status, the situation of available positions, the distribution of doctors, their salaries, the legal and ethical operating framework, I undertook also a study among physicians (especially those being at their early career) to find out the elements that led them to choose this career and what is the current situation of medical career in Romania. For this, I chose questions that reflect the doctors’ satisfaction at workplace and how performance is influenced by the satisfaction level obtained from the medical services provided in the Romanian healthcare facilities. The study had both expected results, already knowing the current situation, but also unexpected, given the expectations of doctors. In more detail, there is a large number of young doctors that before thinking about work at a prestigious hospital abroad, think to what extent the current workplace in Romania offers support for family, pension, holidays etc. Thus, we considered appropriate to bring up within the paper the current possibilities for personal development, the personal brand in various mediums of communication. This paper could be a viable support to provide the necessary elements in creating an upward career path for young doctors. This paper aims primarily to present a current situation of the medical system, more statistical data (unfortunately, statistics regarding the Romanian medical system are not very up to date, most information relates to the year 2007-2009 - 2010), but also the Romanian situation seen from outside or media. The situation is far from being optimistic, the presented data are clear signals of alarm on the present status, but we hope that in the end, this paper has managed to arouse the interest of Romanian doctors with potential on the possibilities and opportunities for a career development in the homeland.
Alina-Mihaela Dima and Georgeta-Madalina Meghisan-Toma
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Higher education is in turmoil in the whole world. Universities as organizations are being challenged by their various stakeholders. This is true of any and most organizations. Nevertheless in some places universities continue to be looked upon as providers of the correct answers to those challenges as they have rallied within their ranks self-proclaimed experts in leadership, management and organizational performance. The literature existing documents the issues universities as organizations face in today’s complex world and attempts at pointing at various ways they can take to address those challenges. Specialists and sometimes the general public itself show an understanding of the fact that higher education evolves through its institutions, practices and processes at some paces in global contexts and at different ones in local contexts in spite of a relatively unifying public discourse used especially by decision and policy makers and some parts of the media. In other words, similar concepts may refer to very dissimilar realities making the evaluation of performance difficult and questionable. This paper looks at the way universities address the need for professional development of their leaders and/or managers at the various university levels. The focus will be on Romanian economic and business higher education institutions. The research presented here evolved from a doctoral study one the authors did in the field of leadership in Romanian higher education and from both authors’ experience in the university system in Romania and in other higher education systems they are familiar with. The authors claim and document that in Romania little is still done in terms of formalized, transparent and open access training for university leaders and administrators. The same is true for those who are interested in preparing for a career in academic management or leadership and do not have a clear road map to follow. In the complex higher education system of today professional competence is an important component that cannot be left entirely to personal development needs. Formalized and open access training in management, leadership, educational management, research management, organizational culture, strategic planning and time management skills is critical for one’s professional competence. In Romania both organizations and individuals need to understand the need to offer opportunities for professional training and the need to invest in personal development. This is how academics working or contemplating to work in administration would be empowered to plan for their organization’s performance in an open, transparent, continually and unpredictably changing world.
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