The USA as a multinational country of immigrants is nevertheless a fertile ground for competing nationalist ideologies and the consequently competing myth-building that surrounds the construction of national identity. The myth of the 1776 Declaration of Independence as an important founding document for domestic politics in the United States continues to spread through popular culture and academic textbooks. The claim of the Jefferson’s Declaration as an aspirational founding document helped establish a myth supporting creedal nationalism, but obscures the arc of the ideological debate over national identity.
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The purpose of this paper is to present the current condition of Ukrainian-Chinese economic relations, in particular initiatives related to the New Silk Road project. The author describes the main areas of cooperation between China and Ukraine, the results of individual initiatives, as well as the difficulties faced by some areas of bilateral cooperation. China turns out to be essential for Ukraine in a period when its relations with Russia have deteriorated and the European Union cannot provide Ukraine with sufficient support. The authorities in Beijing are aware of the strategic position of Ukraine, considering this country as an important link with Central and Western Europe. “is makes the bilateral cooperation very promising, and the increase of Chinese influence in Ukraine is an almost natural consequence of the good collaboration. An increasingly closer Ukrainian-Chinese cooperation results in a number of significant changes in Ukraine and its stronger statehood. According to the author, in the foreseeable future there will be further development of China’s economic expansion in Ukraine. The prospects for cooperation between these two countries are based on the current, multidimensional collaboration, which, however, encounters numerous barriers resulting from the economic weakness and the social capital of Ukraine.
Jews have lived in Iraq and Kurdistan for thousands of years. The vision of the founding of the State of Israel and the emergence of the Nazi ideology in Europe caused that the participation of Jews in social and cultural life and contribution to the development of education and the economy in Iraq ceased to have meaning. The strong influence of Nazi and anti-Zionist ideology led to discrimination and persecution of the Jewish minority in this country. The effect of this was the establishment of laws in the 1950s, which in exchange for permission to travel to Israel deprived Jews of Iraqi citizenship. Nowadays, the legal situation in Iraq and Iraqi Kurdistan has changed aTher the overthrow of Saddam Hussein’s regime. Currently, Kurdish law allows the appointment of representatives of ethnic and religious minorities, the creation of a cultural centres and the reconstruction of important places of worship, as well as obtaining compensation for lost property as a result of repression of previous Iraqi governments. However, the Iraqi New Constitution of 2005 and the Act of 2006, superior to Kurdish law, provide the opportunity to return and regain citizenship to those who lost it, but the exception is Jews who renounced their citizenship on the basis of the 1950 and 1952 laws. Despite the still strong ties with Iraq and Arab culture, Jews, especially Israeli, are deprived of the opportunity to return, regain their citizenship and claim their right to lost property.
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The article presents the origins, development and liquidation of the Jewish cooperative movement in Poland after the Second World War. It outlines the socio-political background, which contributed to the creation of a kind of national-cultural autonomy for the Jews, including one of its pillars - the cooperative movement. The functioning of cooperative institutions was analyzed for the structure of the industry, distribution and their number, and the number of workers employed there. I also assessed the role that their own cooperatives played in the reconstruction of post-war life of the Jewish population in Poland, both in the material as well as social and psychological fields, and also in the development of the cooperative movement in general.
The study indicates that contemporary migration movements of the population in Europe are typical of the cultural and civilizational development of the world. Their main cause involves the problem of meeting needs, especially in terms of money and living. The institutions of the European Union, which stress the guarantee of the rights of a human and a citizen, attach significant importance to them. The location of immigrants is different in various European countries. The experience of the past plays an important role in this respect (migration tradition of states and nations). In terms of the recognition of the principle of the EU that European unity is formed by its cultural diversity, migrants (immigrants and emigrants) are subject to the general processes of cultural and civilizational transformation.
The topic of this article is Slavonic identity according to the Zadruga movement. Zadrugians believed that normal cultural and civilizational development of a nation is possible only if there is harmony between the ethnos and spirituality. The believed that Christianity not only alienated Slavs from their native culture and spirituality but also subjugated them to the (German) Holy Roman Empire and Papacy – prime powers of Christendom – through symbolic power. Zadrugians saw the creation of a new, Slavonic-Pagan identity (as opposed to the Christian one) as the only way of breaking what they perceived as “cultural paralysis”. Only through a fundamental change in their national character and mentality, Poles and Slavs will be able to cease being Western civilization’s cultural periphery.
The article presents the emigration of Polish Jewish community to the individual regions in Africa in the years 1918-1939. It is stated in it that Africa was not really popular among Polish immigrants. Before 1939 only about 4200 people who had Polish citizenship lived on this large continent. Polish Jews occupied an important place among the population.
Relatively the largest colonies of Polish Jews were then in North Africa (Egypt and the Maghreb) and in South Africa. Smaller ones were created in West, Central and East Africa. The wealthiest group of Polish Jews lived in Egypt and South Africa, where they were engaged in trade. In other regions, that group dealt with craft, had small shops or livied on hired labor.
Polish Jews were involved in the development of Polish and of Polish origin association life in Africa. They contributed also to establishing business contacts between Poland and African lands. Individuals received satisfactory material status and a good professional position or were engaged in political activities.