It is widely acknowledged that in the Qijia Culture Period (cca 2200–1500 BC), the Chinese Northwest participated in a broader network of contacts spanning from the Middle Yellow River Valley to Central Asia. However, opinions differ considerably as one regards the character of those contacts and their role in the genesis of the culture. On one hand, many Chinese scholars view the emergence of the Qijia Culture as a result of large migrations from the East; on the other, some western scholars suggest that a number of western human groups participated in its formation. In the present article we use the model of non-uniform institutional the complexity to explain the emergence of the Qijia Culture. We first point out its continuity with earlier Late Neolithic local cultures, and then focus on the spread of new artefacts and, as evidence suggests, of institutions from the East which led to the transformation of various aspects of the material culture within the broader region of the Chinese Northwest, while other elements – burial rites, for instance – preserved their regional diversity. We suggest that eastern innovations spread partly through channels established earlier within an exchange network of locally produced painted pottery and also in association with local area’s social development. These suggestions are supported by the case study which considers the process of development at the well-known site of Liuwan in the middle reaches of the Huang River Valley, Qinghai Province.
The investigation of children and childhood in the past, swiftly developing as a new subfield of study around the world for almost 30 years under the term “archaeology of childhood”, has not been yet sufficiently incorporated in Czech archaeology. The aim of this paper is to introduce this topic, give an overview of research development both home and abroad, outline the available literature, summarise the actual fundamental knowledge and starting points in order to energise the progress in this field of study in our country. The article presents areas of material culture where traces of children can be identified. In the absence of any interest in childhood and children in the past or the integration of these subjects into the archaeological discourse, the testimony of archaeology on prehistoric life remains as a result, incomplete and distorted.
Introduction: Training, Transplants and Tailors
From 1962 to 1971, Colin Baker, an Englishman born in 1929 in Suffolk, found himself in charge of a series of legal training courses in Nyasaland. The British protectorate in East Africa was on its way to becoming the independent state of Malawi in 1964. The aim of the training was to prepare African personnel for their duties in the higher civil service. Today, training local bureaucrats for duties in modern administrations is nothing new. It has been a core activity of development practitioners and
can also be made fruitful for administrative historical investigations. The extent to which emotions enter a habitus (which also determines which emotions are legitimate and which are not) plays a role here; it can be worked out to what extent emotions (perhaps implicitly) are part of strategies for action.
This is connected with the problem of the construction of emotions, and it concerns the development of a certain vocabulary, which first defines what is to be regarded as emotional at all, and determines which manifestations and effects are associated with
in Prussia to register their lives and make them communicable.
The bureaucratic discussions about quarrelers were coupled with a massive increase in and further development of the administrative departments in Prussia. See Sandro-Angelo Fusco et al.: »Verwaltung, Amt, Beamter«, in: Otto Brunner / Werner Conze / Reinhart Koselleck (ed.): Geschichtliche Grundbegriffe. Historisches Lexikon der politisch-sozialen Sprache in Deutschland, Vol. 7, Stuttgart 1992, pp. 1–96 and Michael Stolleis: Geschichte des öffentlichen Rechts in Deutschland. Vol. 1: Reichspublizistik
Konzeptionelle und empirische Aspekte einer ›lebenden Verwaltung‹
Rüdiger von Krosigk
Rüdiger von Krosigk’s re-reading (Relektüre) of Thomas Ellwein’s The State as Coincidence and Necessity (Der Staat als Zufall und als Notwendigkeit, 1993/1997) explores the concept of »living administration« in the Prussian region of East-Westfalia-Lippe in the 19th and 20th century. Ellwein’s approach seeks to overcome those top-down perspectives on public administration that mainly focus on formal hierarchical structures and nurture the idea of »rationality« in the activities, functions and development of public administration. By contrast, his history of public administration draws inspiration from empirical administrative sciences, organisation sociology and historical institutionalism. Even 20 years after publication it is still an invaluable source in the field of administrative history.
Football, the most popular game all over the world, reached the territory of todayʼs Czech Republic in the last decades of the 19th century. In Prague districts and suburbs especially, many Czech and German sport associations started to engage in this sport activity originally born in Britain. The sudden and long-lasting interruption of a positive development due to the mobilization in summer 1914 along with significant political and social changes following the end of First World War, isolated pre-war events and made of them the unique relict environment which forms the main topic of this paper. Leaving sports results aside, the study describes the period after 1900 in which football clubs were established, the enthusiastic amateur transformed into a professional player, loyalty to different teams stemmed on the basis of nationality and social status and football moved from the suburbs’ playgrounds to newly-built, larger and better-quality arenas.
Frits van der Meer, Gerrit Dijkstra and Toon Kerkhoff
thus provides a long-term perspective that can reveal »the fundamental dynamics of state building«. Laurence E. Lynn Jr., Public Management: Old and New, New York 2006, p. 22. Naturally this applies to the study of civil service systems as well. A long-term perspective enables us to see more fundamental developments and offers possibilities to assess motives, intentions and context of changes in civil service systems over time until the present day. A temporal perspective is not only a merit and interesting on its own but is also of prime importance for
Service as an Action Group in Western Political Development«, in: Joseph La Polombara (Hg.): Bureaucracy and Political Development, Princeton 1963.
In diesem Band beschäftigt sich Morstein Marx mit dem »Verwalten«, Morstein Marx: Das Dilemma des Verwaltungsmannes, S. 7. das sowohl als Organisations- wie als Tätigkeitsbegriff verstanden wird. Stärker noch als beim Wort »Verwaltung«, das auch beide Sinndimensionen erfasst, wird aber hier »die Blickrichtung des Handelnden selbst«, also des Amtswalters, zugrunde gelegt. Ebd., S. 7f. Es geht Morstein
André Ourednik, Guido Koller, Peter Fleer and Stefan Nellen
developments. As internal diplomatic documents, they are written by diplomats in diplomatic wording, but they do not reflect the polished diplomatic style of official utterances. The style is the result of the combination of a diplomatic culture that developed in the inter-war period and professionalised after the World War II, and many years of individual training in the course of a diplomatic career. As such, these documents are both institutional and subjective and can be questioned for sentiments or value judgements. One recent example is the confidential report by the