Introduction: Training, Transplants and Tailors
From 1962 to 1971, Colin Baker, an Englishman born in 1929 in Suffolk, found himself in charge of a series of legal training courses in Nyasaland. The British protectorate in East Africa was on its way to becoming the independent state of Malawi in 1964. The aim of the training was to prepare African personnel for their duties in the higher civil service. Today, training local bureaucrats for duties in modern administrations is nothing new. It has been a core activity of development practitioners and
can also be made fruitful for administrative historical investigations. The extent to which emotions enter a habitus (which also determines which emotions are legitimate and which are not) plays a role here; it can be worked out to what extent emotions (perhaps implicitly) are part of strategies for action.
This is connected with the problem of the construction of emotions, and it concerns the development of a certain vocabulary, which first defines what is to be regarded as emotional at all, and determines which manifestations and effects are associated with
in Prussia to register their lives and make them communicable.
The bureaucratic discussions about quarrelers were coupled with a massive increase in and further development of the administrative departments in Prussia. See Sandro-Angelo Fusco et al.: »Verwaltung, Amt, Beamter«, in: Otto Brunner / Werner Conze / Reinhart Koselleck (ed.): Geschichtliche Grundbegriffe. Historisches Lexikon der politisch-sozialen Sprache in Deutschland, Vol. 7, Stuttgart 1992, pp. 1–96 and Michael Stolleis: Geschichte des öffentlichen Rechts in Deutschland. Vol. 1: Reichspublizistik
Konzeptionelle und empirische Aspekte einer ›lebenden Verwaltung‹
Rüdiger von Krosigk
Rüdiger von Krosigk’s re-reading (Relektüre) of Thomas Ellwein’s The State as Coincidence and Necessity (Der Staat als Zufall und als Notwendigkeit, 1993/1997) explores the concept of »living administration« in the Prussian region of East-Westfalia-Lippe in the 19th and 20th century. Ellwein’s approach seeks to overcome those top-down perspectives on public administration that mainly focus on formal hierarchical structures and nurture the idea of »rationality« in the activities, functions and development of public administration. By contrast, his history of public administration draws inspiration from empirical administrative sciences, organisation sociology and historical institutionalism. Even 20 years after publication it is still an invaluable source in the field of administrative history.
Frits van der Meer, Gerrit Dijkstra and Toon Kerkhoff
thus provides a long-term perspective that can reveal »the fundamental dynamics of state building«. Laurence E. Lynn Jr., Public Management: Old and New, New York 2006, p. 22. Naturally this applies to the study of civil service systems as well. A long-term perspective enables us to see more fundamental developments and offers possibilities to assess motives, intentions and context of changes in civil service systems over time until the present day. A temporal perspective is not only a merit and interesting on its own but is also of prime importance for
Service as an Action Group in Western Political Development«, in: Joseph La Polombara (Hg.): Bureaucracy and Political Development, Princeton 1963.
In diesem Band beschäftigt sich Morstein Marx mit dem »Verwalten«, Morstein Marx: Das Dilemma des Verwaltungsmannes, S. 7. das sowohl als Organisations- wie als Tätigkeitsbegriff verstanden wird. Stärker noch als beim Wort »Verwaltung«, das auch beide Sinndimensionen erfasst, wird aber hier »die Blickrichtung des Handelnden selbst«, also des Amtswalters, zugrunde gelegt. Ebd., S. 7f. Es geht Morstein
André Ourednik, Guido Koller, Peter Fleer and Stefan Nellen
developments. As internal diplomatic documents, they are written by diplomats in diplomatic wording, but they do not reflect the polished diplomatic style of official utterances. The style is the result of the combination of a diplomatic culture that developed in the inter-war period and professionalised after the World War II, and many years of individual training in the course of a diplomatic career. As such, these documents are both institutional and subjective and can be questioned for sentiments or value judgements. One recent example is the confidential report by the
graduates and so on. The standing and the political power of the letrados were by no means based on the ever-stricter adherence to administrative instructions and the evermore successful suppression of their own interests and emotions but rather on the skilful development and cultivation of patronage and clientele relationships. Yet, the ostentatious demonstration and assertion of emotions was a decisive key in this matter.
So what is true? While the older, Weberian interpretation suggested that latitude for behaviour narrowed in office, the more a new ethos of duty