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Lay-Out and Spatial Development of Towns from Great Poland in the 13th Century – Preliminary Research

Abstract

This paper deals with the problem of shaping landscape. The examples of towns of Great Poland from the 13th century were implemented and used. Their layout was not accidental. Towns were created with a substantial dose of accuracy. A market square was precisely laid out; roads were turned straight to the nearby towns, and plots were created for townsmen. It tended to be the final product of human thought and idea. The comparison of towns’ sizes shows that the same measures and similar schemes were used. In a medieval town each and every aspect was carefully planned and wellthought- out, but sometimes it was modified due to the terrain. Subsequent generations interpreted landscape on their own and occasionally changed the layout of a town. The contemporary appearance of towns is a product of thought materialisation in the living space. That is why the landscape of towns can be analysed and read.

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Trade as a Socio-Economic Factor of Town Development. A Dynamic Perspective on the Example of Leszno

Abstract

The aim of this study is to determine the current role of trade as a town developing factor. The analysis was made on the example of a middle-size town - Leszno. During only the last few years a lot of have taken place in Leszno concerning the quality and quantity of trade as well as location of it in the town space. This study contains the analysis and assessment of changes in Leszno retail trade in the years 2010-2012. The survey was the basis for the assessment of the town prestige as a subregional trade centre, appraisal of the trade system, the arrangement of trade points in the town, the appeal of the town and its centre as a result of building new shopping malls.

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To Regulate or to Liberate? Business Development and the Dilemmas of the Authorities Regarding the Shape of Economic Policy in the Years 1989–1995

” [Security & Re], August 1997, p. 10 Gomułka S., (2016), Transformacja i rozwój. Teoria i polityka gospodarcza [Transformation and development. Economic theory and policy], Warszawa. Holly R, (1997), Mali czują się pewniej [Small players feel more secure], “Asekuracja & Re” [Security & Re], March 1997, p. 52-53 Jak kusi kasa. Spowiedź liberała (2014), [How cash tempts you. Confessions of a liberal]. Interview of Grzegorz Sroczyński with Jan Krzysztof Bielecki, “Gazeta Wyborcza”, May 17-18, p. 14-15. Kamosiński

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New Urbanization of the Steppe. Astana: A Capital Called the Capital

Abstract

Relocating the capital of Kazakhstan from Almaty to Akmola (then renamed Astana) in 1997 has been the subject of an intense debate, particularly within media. The process of creating the new capital of Kazakhstan should consider the broader perspective of historical, political and ideological, social, climatic and geographical factors, and finally to put the matter in terms of architecture and urban planning. The author considers this very broad perspective, finally expressing the hope that the project of “the city of the future” analyzed in the article, will become a permanent part of the Kazakh reality.

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A Final Eneolithic Research Inspirations: Subcarpathia Borderlands Between Eastern and Western Europe

Tripolye metallurgy and the virgin copper of Volhynia. Baltic-Pontic Studies 9: 168-186. Kośko A. 2000 From research into the issue of the development dependencies of the Corded Ware culture and Yamnaya culture. In: S. Kadrow (Ed.) A Turning of Ages/Im Wandel der Zeiten. Jubilee book dedicated to Professor Jan Machnik on His 70th anniversary , 337-346. Kraków. 2011 Z badań nad kontekstem kultur wczesnobrązowych strefy pontyjskiej w rozwoju społeczności środkowoeuropejskich obszaru dorzecza Wisły w III tys. przed Chr. In: U. Stankiewicz, A. Wawrusiewicz

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Chronometry of the Final Eneolithic Cemeteries at Święte, Jarosław District, from the Perspective of Cultural Relations Among Lesser Poland, Podolia and the North-Western Black Sea Region

krajín – 2010 , 373-387. Nitra. 2014 The traits of Early-Bronze Pontic cultures in the development of old upland Corded Ware (Małopolska groups) and Złota culture communities. Baltic-Pontic Studies 19: 7-52. 2016 Chronologia absolutna cmentarzysk późnoi schyłkowoneolitycznych na Wyżynie Lubelskiej. In: P. Jarosz, J. Libera, P. Włodarczak (Eds) Schyłek neolitu na Wyżynie Lubelskiej, 537-548. Kraków. 2017 Toward the Bronze Age in south-eastern Poland (2300-2000 BC). In: P. Włodarczak (Ed.) The Past Societies. 2. 5500-2000 BC. Polish lands from the

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East Central Europe in the First Globalization (1850-1914)

privates Kapital im Spiegel einer österreichischen Wirtschaftsinstitution , Wien. Baltzarek, Franz (2005), Finanzrevolutionen, Industrialisierung und Crédit-Mobilier-Banken in der Habsburgermonarchie [in:] Rathkolb, Oliver et al. (Eds.), Bank Austria Creditanstalt. 150 Jahre österreichische Bankengeschichte im Zentrum Europas , Wien, pp. 12-36. Bandiera Oriana, Rasul Imran, Viarengo, Martina (2013), The Making of Modern America: Migratory Flows in the Age of Mass Migration [in:] Journal of Development Economics, Vol. 102, pp. 23-47. Berend, Ivan T

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Informational Support of Civilian Intelligence for Heavy Industry (Including Machine Industry) and the Energy Sector in the Polish People’s Republic in the Years 1970–1990

Europie i na Zachodzie [The Mitrokhin Archive: the KGB in Europe and in the West], trans. M. M. Brzeska, R. Brzeski, Warszawa. Bagieński W. (2011), Wkład wywiadu gospodarczego w rozwój przemysłowy w dekadzie Edwarda Gierka [Contribution of economic intelligence to industrial development in the decade of Gierek] [in:] Dekada Gierka. Wnioski dla obecnego okresu modernizacji Polski [The decade of Gierek. Conclusions from the point of view of current modernization of Poland], ed. K. Rybiński, Warszawa. Bagieński W. (2017), Wywiad cywilny Polski Ludowej w

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Święte 15: Cemetery of the Corded Ware Culture

Abstract

The Corded Ware culture (CWC) cemetery at site 15 in Święte, Radymno Commune, Jarosław District, was researched in 2010-2011 in the context of rescue excavations before the construction of the A4 motorway. Nine features were discovered, including six graves with a niche construction. An analysis of funerary rite traits and relics forming the grave inventory indicates that the above is linked with the later stage of the CWC development in Lesser Poland. Analogical materials are found in the neighbouring sites 11 and 20 in Święte and 7 in Skołoszów. On the basis of radiocarbon dating the chronology of the cemetery complex was defined to the period 2525-2380 BC. An interesting element of grave inventories is vessels analogous to finds from the Middle Dnieper and Catacomb cultures. These point to the ties of communities using the cemetery complex in Święte with those to the east of Lesser Poland – confirmed in the analysis conducted of stable isotopes of strontium.

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Social insurance in the Second Republic of Poland. Social advantage or the policy of caution

Abstract

Social insurance was conceived from a great thought of the social caution, from the thought of protection of an uncertain future. That thought of caution, during the time of development of social insurance, was implemented by the public entities on the one hand and by the civil activity on the other one. However, the process of creation of the social insurance system in Poland did not represent the policy of caution executed by the state. The only sign of caution could be seen with reference to the insurance associations as there the participants decided whether to enter the system or not whereas the state executed the policy of giving privileges to the certain social groups

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