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.O., 2014, Nanotechnology and its applicaton in dentstry. Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research, 4 : 171-177. Abubakar, A.S., Salisu, I.B., Chahal, S., Sahni, S., Pudake, R.N., 2014, Biosynthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles using black carrot root extract. International Journal of Current Research and Review, 6 : 5-8. Abul-Ezz, A., 2004, Development of scientific concepts and skills and teaching methods . Oman: Dar Thought for Printing, Publishing and Distribution. Adebayo-Tayo, B.C., Inem, S.A., Olaniyi, O.A., 2019, Rapid synthesis and

Educational Design. Pitman, New Jersey. Available on Retrieved 10-07-2019. Nugraha, S.T., Suwandi, S., Nurkantr, J., Saddho, K., 2018, The Importance of Needs Assessment for the Implementation of E-learning in a Language program. KnE Social Sciences, 3(9): 254-260. Retrieved on 10-07-2019 from Olatunji, E.K., Oladosu, J.B., Odejobi, O. A., Olabiyisi, S.O., 2018, Towards Development of an Indigenous African Language-based Programming Language, FUOYE, Journal of Engineering and Technology (FUOYEJET


Phytochemical constituents of plants extracts have been well investigated as leads for drug discovery and development. However, aside their immense medicinal properties, their safety is also of paramount importance, therefore evaluating the toxicity of plants extracts and their phytochemicals is an important aspect of quality measures to meet the requirements for consumption.This study was done to identify the volatile phytochemical compounds present in n-hexane extract of Uvaria chamae stems (UCSH) with the aid of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and to evaluate the effects of this non-polar extract on DNA using diphenylamine (DPA) and agarose gel electrophoresis assays, also to investigate the haematological parameters using an auto Haematology Analyzer.The GC-MS analysis of UCSH identified some compounds which include; squalene, lupeol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol, and Benzyl benzoate with excellent medicinal properties. Genotoxicity assays results showed significant reductions in DNA fragmentation in liver and testis cells of mice as against the DNA biomarker and vehicle control group. Haematological results showed significant increase in white blood cells (WBC), red blood cell (RBC), platelets (PLT) and lymphocytes (LYMP) but significant reduction in mean corpuscular - volume (MCV), haemoglobin (MCH), and haemoglobin concentration (MCHC).The present study showed that the phytochemicals present in the n-Hexane extract of Uvaria chamae stems may play protective role in the genomic DNA of liver and testis tissues and also may induce hematological changes which may enhance the immune system.


The use of behavioural change systems in providing interventions for people is common in this present era of information technology. Many people depend on these systems for many reasons like safe driving, healthy food consumption, energy conservation, etc. Some of these systems have been successful in making people change positively while a larger percentage have not been successful due to many issues that were not addressed during the development of such systems. One of them is psychological reactance, a motivational state that is aroused when a person’s freedom is threatened or eliminated. It has major focus restoring any freedom that has been threatened. This forms the motivation for this work and it starts with a brief study of the theory of psychological reactance with a new view of accessing it from perceived usability perspective. To study reactance in people, a survey was conducted. It focussed on accessing reactance through attitudes to forced compliance in a persuasive website in the context of meal-planning. Results from this study showed that participants with high freedom text had better attitude to the website in terms of anger and perceived usability than participants with low-freedom text. This work confirmed the social agency proposition that the presence of social cues in a multimedia message can stimulate the social interaction pattern in people’s learning. Once this social interaction pattern is initiated, there is a high possibility for pupils to act as if they are interacting with another individual. Therefore, to some degree, social convention of human-to-human interaction sets in as participants with high freedom message had a lower anger score than participants with high freedom plus social message.


Mitochondrial dysfunction (MD) and impaired apoptotic pathways cause irreversible opening of the Mitochondrial Permeability Transition (MPT) pore, resulting in several pathological conditions e.g. cancer, ageing and neurodegenerative diseases. Many bioactive compounds from plants have been identified as modulators of the MPT pore which makes them possible drugs for the management of MD associated diseases. Adenopus breviflorus (A.breviflorus) is a tropical medicinal plant used in folkore medicine as an abortifacient and in treating gonorrhoea. In this study, the effects of ethylacetate and methanol fractions of A.breviflorus were assessed on rat liver MPT pore and Mitochondrial ATPase (mATPase). The fruit of A.breviflorus was extracted with water to obtain the aqueous Extract (AEAB), which was fractionated using vacuum liquid chromatography (VLC) to obtain ethylacetate and methanol fractions of A.breviflorus (EFAB, and MFAB). The extent of MPT pore opening and mATPase by EFAB and MFAB were assayed spectrophotometrically. The results obtained showed that EFAB and MFAB have no significant inductive effect on the MPT pore in the absence of Ca2+. However, in the presence of Ca2+, EFAB inhibited calcium-induced MPT pore opening in a non-concentration dependent manner. Maximum inhibition of MPT pore opening was 57.1% at 50 μg/ml. Interestingly, MFAB potentiated calcium ion effect by opening the pore further. Specifically, MFAB opened the MPT pore by 11, 10, 17 and 9% at 50, 150, 250 and 350 μg/ml, respectively. Furthermore, EFAB and MFAB inhibited mATPase activity in rat liver mitochondria at 62.5, 187.5, 312.5 and 437.5 μg/ml by 2.6, 18.8, 37.3, 52.6% and 41.8, 6.8, 24.3, 8.4%, respectively. The ethylacetate and methanol fractions of Adenopus breviflorus possess potential phytochemicals that can modulate opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore and inhibit mitochondrial ATPase activity in rat liver. These fractions may find use in drug development against diseases where excessive apoptosis takes place.

. Pediatrics 85, 85-91. Makama, S.D. 2010. 2006 Population and Housing Census, Priority table, NPC, ed. (Abuja, Federal Republic of Nigeria), p. 64. Mwangi M., Kariuki S., 2015, Factors Determining Adoption of New Agricultural Technology by Smallholder Farmers in Developing Countries. Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development 6 (5): 208-216 Nmadu, J. N. Sallawu, H., & Omojeso B. V., 2015, Socio-Economic Factors Affecting Adoption of Innovations by Cocoa Farmers in Ondo State, Nigeria. European Journal of Business, Economics and Accountancy 3(2): 58-66. Onyenweaku, C

Pleurotus species based on izoenzyme analysis. Mycol. Res ., 98, 329-341. Genet, T., Labbuschagne, M.T., and Hugo, A., 2005. Genetic relationships among Ethiopian mustard genotypes based on oil content and fatty acid composition. Afr. J. Biotechnol ., 4, 1256-268. Kibar, B., and Peksen, A., 2008. Modelling the effects of temperature and light intensity on the development and yield of different Pleurotus species. Agric. Trop. Subtrop ., 41 , 68-73. Membre, J.M., Kubaczka, M., and Chene, C., 1999. Combined effects of pH and sugar on growth rate of

: Applications of Exercise Physiology to Patient Management. Canadian Journal of Diabetes , 30 (1):63-71. Moshe, P., Tadej, B., Eran, A.,Olga, K., Natasa, B., Shahar, M.,Torben, B., Magdalena, A., Stefanija, M.D., Ido, M., Revital, N. and Thomas, D., 2013, Artificial Pancreas for Nocturnal Glucose Control. The New England Journal of Medicine N ENGL J MED, 368 (9):824 – 833. Scott, M. P., Marilyn, J. B., Brent, D. C., Raymond, E. B., Jason, D. L., Desmond, S., Antonio, C., and Thomas, J. P., 2010, Development of a neural network model for predicting glucose levels in a

References Abdul-Hammed, M., Bello, I.A., Oladoye, S.O., 2013, Simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of lycopene and beta-carotene concentrations in carotenoid mixtures of the extract of tomatoes, papaya and orange juice. Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research Series B: Biological Sciences, 56 (2): 90-97. Abdul-Hammed, M., Bello, I.A., Olajire, A.A., 2009, Comparison of biochemical and physiological properties of Nigerian tomato fruits ripened under different conditions. African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development, 9

., Srinivas, U., Gangadasu, B., Biswas, S. and Rao, V.J., 2005. Anti-malarial activity of Baylis-Hillman adducts from substituted 2-chloronicotinaldehydes. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett ., 15 , 5378-5381. Nelson, D.L. and Cox, M.M. Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry. Fourth edition, (2008) pp 75-189. W.H. Freeman, New York. Oder, E., Safo, M.K., Abdulmalik, O. and Kato, G.J., 2016. New Developments in Anti-Sickling Agents: Can Drugs Directly Prevent the Polymerization of Sickle Haemoglobin In Vivo ? British Journal of Haematology , 175 (1), 24-30. Olomola, T.O., Klein, R