Johannes Lang, Ines Leonhardt, Sarah Beer, Nicolle Bräsel, Johann D. Lanz and Daniel Schmittfull
Nest boxes and nest tubes are widely used for surveys, for both research and development purposes, to detect and survey hazel dormice (Muscardinus avellanarius). In order to compare the performance of the two devices for translocations a study was conducted where hazel dormice had the choice between nest boxes and nest tubes. Hazel dormice preferred nest tubes over nest boxes but escaped more often from nest tubes than from nest boxes during checking. We conclude that nest boxes are the better choice for translocations as they offer the better escape ratio over nest tubes.
The hazel dormouse (Muscardinus avellanarius) is a European Protected Species and for this reason, hazel dormice are protected from deliberate killing, injury or disturbance and its sites and resting places are also protected. During development projects impacts on hazel dormouse individuals and populations should be avoided. If avoidance is not possible measures of mitigation and compensation have to be implemented. In many cases the only suitable measure to prevent disturbance, killing or injury of individuals is the translocation of hazel dormice to another suitable habitat. The success of translocations has so far been rarely documented. To assess the success of translocations, the natural mortality of hazel dormice has to be considered as well as the likelihood of finding specific individuals during the proposed action. How these data affect the assessment of translocation success is calculated based on published data on seasonal survival rates of different cohorts and of unpublished monthly encounter probabilities of a population of marked animals. Depending on the time between the translocation event and the subsequent monitoring controls the number of hazel dormice likely to be alive can be low. For this reason, success cannot be evaluated with our method if the sample size is too small.
The beneficial effect of sunlight on all forms of life has been well-known to human cultures worldwide throughout history. However, the importance of darkness for survival, successful reproduction and the overall fitness of all organisms is fully appreciated only by physiologists and environmental biologists. Seasonal variations in environmental conditions (i.e., rainfall, temperature, barometric pressure, food availability) significantly affect reproduction and survival but they are of little predictive value. In contrast, daily fluctuations in light levels and the light spectrum are less dramatic in their impact on life, but were highly predictable throughout evolution. Natural selection has thus favored a strategy of monitoring a day’s length as a predictor of changes in external conditions by the development of the molecular circadian clock, which is sensitive to changes in light/darkness during the day and night. Well-synchronized circadian clockwork ensures that behavioral and physiological processes fluctuate with the daily solar cycle and programs the seasonal changes in physiology via the transduction of the photoperiod into hormonal messages. During the last two decades, energy-efficient lighting technology has shifted from “yellow” high-pressure sodium vapor lamps to new “white” light-emitting diodes (LEDs). As a consequence, nighttime light pollution increased, and the sharp difference between day and night has been erased in many parts of the world, which threatens animal ecology and human health. Studies on humans, laboratory mammals and wildlife suggest that the physiological costs of living under artificial light at night (ALAN) may be due to the disruption of circadian and circannual timing. This overview summarizes the recent findings on the effect of the blurred day/night difference on the circadian clock, nighttime melatonin secretion and photoperiodic changes in mammals and suggests that the gradual decline of fitness due to the increasing ALAN measured in the human population may contribute to the changes in mammalian biodiversity in nature.
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This paper deals with museums as a key part of cultural and creative industries and their role in social and economic development. Taking into account the role of museums in the past and the current trends, their contribution is considered to be crucial. Cultural and creative industries are an intersection of art, technology, cultural heritage, innovation, creativity and mental and manual labour. The purpose of this paper is to reflect links between museums, creativity, innovation and culture in the changing economy.
Unattractive stains on gold coins – sometimes wrongly described or mistakenly understood as gold corrosion – remained in focus of increased interest of scholars especially because of development of modern analytical techniques in the last decades. It is impossible to answer the primary questions about character and reasons of appearance of these stains without deep interdisciplinary knowledge. There is also another important question dealing with prevention of these stains and possibility of their gentle removal. The presented study tries to discover what caused appearance of the dark stains on the surface of the gold medal from Olomouc celebrating handover of the rule to Franz Joseph I and what is their chemical substance, and if it could be – in this case – a result and external effect of violation of the declared fineness.