The subject of the research is the set of the 24 largest Polish cities, whereas its objective is to describe the changes affecting this set in 1998–2015 in the selected categories of features (six features describing the selected categories of socio-economic development). The idea to adopt the set of the 24 largest Polish cities as the research subject may raise doubts. However, it should be emphasized that the largest cities, being as assumed, generators of development and civilizational cultural progress, at the same time severely experience numerous unfavourable
Marta Borowska-Stefańska, Szymon Wiśniewski and Klaudia Modrzejewska
given period ( Koter 1974 ).
The aforementioned conditioning factors make cities multi-element complex forms of settlement undergoing constant transformation. Long-lasting and varied settlement processes manifest themselves in their space. The factors indicated are also a reason for the differentiation of city size and shape, the types of development and the way that space is planned in urban areas ( Koter 1974 ). Cities may be analysed in a number of aspects with regard to the specificity of their appearance and functioning.
Studies on the spatial structure of
political and socio-economic specifics common to post-socialist countries ( Andrusz et al. 1996 ). This chapter focuses on the present and projected spatial phenomena of the Gdańsk conurbation resulting from the main polycentric and comprehensive development strategies.
The aim of the paper is to discuss the role of the integrated transport system and mobility in the development of the Gdańsk Bay Metropolitan Area with special emphasis on how it influences the development of comprehensive, polycentric urban structures. It includes analyses of how the changes, which
Economic development, social cohesion and responsive governance are recognised in the academic and political debate as essential for survival in today’s world – and cities are seen as crucial to achieving these goals ( Buck et al. 2005 ). A growing body of research suggests that cities are complex, interrelated environments that foster the generation of new ideas. Cities are home to most jobs, companies and institutions of higher education, are home to change based on innovation, spirit of enterprise and economic growth. Cities are the driving
In recent years, there has been a noticeable increase in the desire to promote public participation in urban development. Planners have become increasingly aware of the value of the knowledge held by local citizens as a means to enhance the quality of urban development projects. Events such as the turmoil seen in Germany in relation to the Stuttgart21 Project ( Böhm 2011 : 615) indicate a need for efficient participation processes. On the other hand, several participation projects, such as Tempelhofer Feld in Berlin ( Heuser & Bodenmeier 2016
Foodservice is the largest industry in the hospitality sector in the European Union, including Poland ( Eurostat 2017 ). Foodservice business is one of the most vigorous sectors of the Polish economy. In today’s world, foodservice companies play an important role in successfully meeting the changing nutritional needs of consumers. This industry generates the largest part of value-added and the majority of jobs in the hospitality sector. The development of the foodservice industry is undoubtedly related to the social and economic changes which
Ryszard Nejman, Maciej Łepkowski, Anna Wilczyńska and Beata J. Gawryszewska
( Kusiak 2012 ; Żydek 2014 ).
The concept of ‘wasteland’ is deeply pejorative, especially in the Polish language. If one refers to the agricultural genealogy of this word we are led to the synonym ‘fallow’. An association with waste and mismanagement cannot be avoided as every good farmer uses all his available land. Therefore; in view of such connotations, the word ‘wasteland’ is especially useful when the goal consists of the spatial development of a fragment of urban structure. It works perfectly in the language of investors from both the public and private sectors
reasons that lead to the chaotic nature of suburban development ( Zuziak 2005 : 22; Zimnicka & Czernik 2007a : 112). Due to the lack of instruments that effectively coordinate the spatial policies of municipalities in suburban areas, suburbanisation processes are chaotic and uncontrolled. Communes compete with neighbouring areas to attract new residents to their area. They forget about the importance of links with neighbouring areas which would prevent transport problems, underdevelopment of communal infrastructure and inappropriate educational provision ( Lorens 2005
. 1, 2007.
4. Anum, Z. Popping the Property Bubble at Last 2018 [online]. DAWN [cited 25.05.2019]. https://www.dawn.com/news/1414712
5. Azim, P., Ahmad, R. Changing Demographic Trends and Housing Market in Pakistan. Forman Journal of Economic Studies, Vol. 6, 2010, pp. 49‒64.
6. Bajwa, I. U., Ahmad I., Khan Z. Urban Housing Development in Pakistan; A Case Study of Lahore Metropolitan Area. Journal of Pakistan Engineering Congress, 2000, pp. 65‒73.
7. Bureau of Statistics, District Census Report of Lahore 1998. Govt. of Pakistan
Article focuses on the workflows for generating new hybrid material explorations for architectural application through development of new strategies of applying parametricism as one of the main driving forces in the design that exercises novelty through 3D modeling and visual programming languages. The obtained results have been applied in series of material design experimental sample projects that challenge the standard geometries and enhance the field of applicative materials for architectural application.