). Comparison of designmethods for a tank-bottom annular plate and concrete ringwall. International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping 77, p. 511-517. 10.1016/S0308-0161(00)00055-7
Wu T.Y. Liu G.R. 2000 Comparison of designmethods for a tank-bottom annular plate and concrete ringwall International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping 77 511 517
 Lenzi M., Campana P. (2008). Ovalization of Steel Storage Tanks as a Result of Differential Settlements Structural Engineering International , Volume 18, No. 4.
Lenzi M. Campana P. 2008
Jardine R.J. Standing J.R. 1999 Pile load testing performed for HSE cyclic loading study at Dunkirk, France. Vol. 1. UK. Health and Safety Executive London, UK Offshore Technology Report OTO 2000 007
 Jardine, R., Chow, F., Overy, R., Standing, J., 2005. ICP designmethods for driven piles in sands and clays. Thomas Telford.
Jardine R. Chow F. Overy R. Standing J. 2005 ICP designmethods for driven piles in sands and clays Thomas Telford
 Jardine, R.J., Standing, J.R., Chow, F.C., 2006. Some observations of the effects of
Time-dependent behaviour of soft soils should be incorporated in the design reasonably. Each practical case involving organic soils should be thoroughly investigated. Finally, the proper designmethods, considering safe and economic aspects, should be chosen.
 den Haan, E.J., Feddema, A. (2013). Deformation and strength of embankments on soft Dutch soil. Geotechnical Engineering 166, 239‑252.
den Haan E.J. Feddema A. 2013 Deformation and strength of embankments on soft Dutch soil Geotechnical Engineering 166 239 252
The paper demonstrates how the reliability methods can be utilised in order to evaluate safety in geotechnics. Special attention is paid to the so-called reliability based design that can play a useful and complementary role to Eurocode 7. In the first part, a brief review of first- and second-order reliability methods is given. Next, two examples of reliability-based design are demonstrated. The first one is focussed on bearing capacity calculation and is dedicated to comparison with EC7 requirements. The second one analyses a rigid pile subjected to lateral load and is oriented towards working stress design method. In the second part, applications of random field to safety evaluations in geotechnics are addressed. After a short review of the theory a Random Finite Element algorithm to reliability based design of shallow strip foundation is given. Finally, two illustrative examples for cohesive and cohesionless soils are demonstrated.
 GWIZDAŁA K., KOWALSKI J.R., Driven precast piles, (in Polish), PG WILiŚ KG, 2005.  GWIZDAŁA K., Pile foundations. Investigations and application, (in Polish), Vol. 2, PWN, 2013.  GWIZDAŁA K., Polish designmethods for single axially loaded piles. Design of Axially Loaded Piles, European Practice, ERTC3 Brussels, Belgium, 17-18 April 1997.  CICHY L., TKACZYŃSKI G., RYBAK J., Dynamic tests of bearing capacity of precast piles, (in Polish), Inżynieria i Budownictwo, nr 3/2009.  KUMOR M.K., SZPAKOWSKI K., The bearing
] COUSSY O., Mechanics and Physics of Porous Solids, JohnWiley, 2010.
 DARCY H., Les fontaines publiques de la ville de Dijon, Paris, 1856.
 DETOURNAY E., CHENG A.H.-D., Fundamentals of Poroelasticity, Comprehensive Rock Engineering: Principles, Practice and Projects, Vol. II, Analysis and DesignMethods, Pergamon Press, Oxford 1993.
 DUPUIT J., Etudes theoriques et practiquessur le movement des eaux dans les canauxdecouvert et a travers les terrains permeable, Paris, 1863.
 FORCHEHEIMER P
Krzysztof Górski, Rajmund Leszek Ignatowicz, Jędrzej Wierzbicki, Robert Mazur and Jakub Mazurkiewicz
 ASGARI ALI, OLIAEI MOHAMMAD, BAGHERI MOHSEN, Numerical simulation of improvement of a liquefiable soil layer using stone column and pile-pinning techniques. Original Research Article, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 2013, Vol. 51, 77-96.
 BORGES J.L., DOMINGUES T.S., CARDOSO A.S., Embankments on soft soil reinforced with stone columns: numerical analysis and proposal of a new designmethod, Geotech. Geol. Eng. 2009, 27(6), 667-679.
 BORGES JOSÉ LEITÃO, MARQUES DANIELA OLIVEIRA
completely different. Moreover, the maximum values of skin friction and toe resistance are mobilised at different settlement value. The resistance distribution in an ultimate limit state, which is the basis of the designmethod, may be completely different from the resistance distribution in the real conditions of pile–soil interaction. Conclusions similar to that were also received by Krasiński, Gwizdała [ 3 ], Salgado and Prezzi [ 7 ].
Axially loaded pile transmits forces by the skin friction and the soil resistance under the toe of the pile. It is absolutely obvious
specifications [ 1 , 2 ]. The code implements the use of limit states on geotechnical requirements and hence can be applied for foundation design [ 17 ]. For the calculation of geotechnical parameters, LRFD (Load and Resistance Factor Design) method is followed. AASHTO specifications assign safety factors on actions and resistances. For each limit state, an overall factor is applied on the ground resistances calculated from unfactored parameters. The final factored load as per AASHTO should be computed using Eq. (7) :
Q = Σ n i γ i Q i
designmethods are based on preliminary linear elastic computations, then dimensioning of the structural members based on dedicated standards, and finally checking the serviceability limit states (SLSs). The main role of advanced FE modelling is rather to check the SLSs using global analysis. A fully consistent approach in which both subsoil and structure are treated as nonlinear materials, including visco-elastic creep, in the structure, is proposed and analysed in this paper. A similar approach was recently analysed by Obrzud et al. [ 1 ]; however, the concrete model