Mihai Dicu, Andreea Matei and Constantin Dorinel Voiniţchi
The paper follows the potential practice of fiber reinforced concrete (FRC) as a solution for airport`s runway pavements, in order to increase the bearing strength, resulting in decreasing the height of the concrete layer that is currently used.
Experimentally, the study focuses on the properties of fiber reinforced Portland cement concrete using 3 different percentages (0.5%, 1% and 1.5% of the concrete volume) and 4 different types of fiber (for 1% percentage – hooked steel fiber 50 mm length, hooked steel fiber 30 mm length, crimped steel fiber 30 mm length and polypropylene fiber 50 mm lenght), using as reference a plain concrete with 5 MPa flexural strength.
More exactly, the study presents the change in compressive and flexural strength, shrinkage, thermal expansion factor, elastic modulus and Poisson`s ratio over fiber type and dosage.
For the highest performance concrete (7 MPa flexural strength), it has been made a study using two methods for rigid airport pavements design (general method and optimized method), and one method for evaluation of bearing strength (ACN – PCN method), which is compared to a plain 5 MPa concrete. Furthermore, the decrease in the slab`s thickness proportionally to the growth of the flexural strength is emphasized by evaluating the slab`s height for a high performance 9 MPa concrete using both design methods.
A.M. Mendes, M.C.B. Costa, V.D. Araújo, F.V. Motta, C.A. Paskocimas, W. Acchar, E. Longo, M.R.D. Bomio and L.S. Cavalcante
In this work, the effect of sintering parameters on electronic structure and physical properties of yttria-partially stabilized ZrO2 (YPSZ) commercial ceramics has been studied using the central composite design (CCD) method. The CCD method allows using empirical modelling with better fitting, by considering the interaction between both factors. Different temperature ranges and sintering times for processing of YPSZ ceramics have been used in order to evaluate the grain growth, hardness and volumetric shrinkage by the CCD method. X-ray diffraction patterns and Rietveld refinement data indicate that non-sintered YPSZ ceramics exhibits two phases related to tetragonal and monoclinic structures, while the sintered YPSZ ceramics exhibits a single phase related to a tetragonal structure. Moreover, the monoclinic structure presents zirconium (Zr) atoms coordinated to seven oxygen (O) atoms, while in the tetragonal structure Zr atoms are coordinated to eight O atoms. Field emission scanning electron microscopy images were employed to monitor the sintering and growth process. In addition, the response surfaces obtained from calculations presented the effect of thermal and kinetic variables on the physical properties such as average grain size, volumetric shrinkage and hardness of YPSZ ceramics.
The research focuses on the development of an Unmanned Aircraft System. For design purposes, a rather new design method called Systems Engineering Approach is used. Development of the whole system takes much time and effort. This paper contains a concise description of the research on the preliminary development phase of Unmanned Aircraft System air vehicle. The method was first introduced by NASA and later developed by authors of books on aircraft design used for information purposes for design and are mentioned in references. The obtained results are rather realistic and promising for further design process. The method is simple and understandable, and it should be used more often to make it more steady and reliable.
A. Hajalilou, M. Hashim, R. Ebrahimi-Kahrizsangi, H. Mohamed Kamari and S. Kanagesan
In this study, the Taguchi robust design method is used for optimizing ball milling parameters including milling time, rotation speed and ball to powder weight ratio in the planetary ball milling of nanostructured nickel ferrite powder. In fact, the current work deals with NiFe2O4 nanoparticles mechanochemically synthesized from NiO and Fe2O3 powders. The Taguchi robust design technique of system optimization with the L9 orthogonal array is performed to verify the best experimental levels and contribution percentages (% ρ) of each parameter. Particle size measurement using SEM gives the average particle size value in the range of 59–67 nm. X-ray diffraction using Cu Kα radiation is also carried out to identify the formation of NiFe2O4 single phase. The XRD results suggest that NiFe2O4 with a crystallite size of about 12 nm is present in 30 h activated specimens. Furthermore, based on the results of the Taguchi approach the greatest effect on particle size (42.10 %) is found to be due to rotation speed followed by milling time (37.08 %) while ball to powder weight ratio exhibits the least influence.
This paper aims to establish the interface conditions influence on the flexible pavement structures life. The methodology consists in using the interface constitutive model available in the Alizé calculation program to calculate the stresses and strains in the flexible pavement structures.
The design criteria related to limiting fatigue cracking of asphalt layers and permanent deformations at the subgrade level from the road bed are used to estimate the flexible pavement structures lifetime.
When calculating the critical stresses and strains, most mechanical design methods of the flexible pavement structures considers that the road layers at interfaces are perfect bonded or total unbonded.
Proper modeling of the interface binding condition is an important aspect in understanding the real behaviour of in-service flexible pavement structures.
Arch bridges were the first constructions with considerable spans built by man, due to the materials and technologies available at that time. Afterwards, these works of art have diversified and are now solutions used in countless situations, especially when crossing deep valleys.
Both their economic and architectonic aspects are hard to combat and have led to selecting this type of structure for more and more locations.
The paper will contain a brief presentation of some aspects regarding upper path concrete arch bridges composition and design methods. Also, it will have a case study regarding structural stresses over the different construction stages, and for several support hypotheses.
The case study will reflect the Crivadia viaduct, situated on DN 66, at km 150+672. The bridge has a main span of 59.20m and an overall height of 15.00m, serving a 7.80m wide carriageway and two 2.20m wide footways. It has a total length of 107.60m.
Based on the results of the case study, conclusions will be drawn regarding stress variation over the construction stages and under different support hypothesis, comparing these with the initial results.
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