Social and economic transformations which are taking place in the Ukrainian society, the development of market relations, fast scientific and technical progress require the introduction of the model of the continuous knowledge upgrading that is necessary for the successful professional and personal development. The problem of educational needs is an interdisciplinary field which is defined by the complex of social and humanitarian sciences. The determining place among these sciences belongs to philosophy of education, sociology and pedagogy. The author is of the opinion that the investigation of educational needs of Ukrainian citizens will allow characterizing the educational situation in the country, substantiating the mechanisms of regulating separate subsystems of modern adult education and identifying some problems which hinder the development of this educational branch. There have been considered the questions of meeting the educational needs of the population as well as the peculiarities of forming the educational needs. In addition, the author’s understanding of the term “educational needs” and their characteristic features have been offered in the paper. The article represents the results of investigating educational needs in one of Ukraine’s regions, the purpose of which was to identify the requirement level of educational needs, to assess the quality of the provided educational services, to distinguish the motives of their use and the perspectives of their dissemination in the region.
Research relevance is determined by the need to enhance teacher education, consolidate teachers’ further professional and personal development, increase the prestige of the teaching profession. The article focuses on enhancing professional training of teachers in the European countries under the conditions of lifelong learning. Based on the study and analysis of reseaches by Ukrainian and foreign scholars and some statistical information, the peculiarities of teaching and teacher training have been justified. Mentoring has been described as a way of transferring experience, knowledge, abilities and skills from one age group to another, or from one person to another. It has been found that mentoring aims to provide support and promote self-realization in professional activity. Lifelong learning has been defined as a programme for thinking and activity development. The statistical data on the needs of teacher development and thematic demand and supply in lifelong learning have been analyzed. It has been emphasized that modern trends in the development of lifelong learning for teachers in the EU countries include consolidation and rationalization of organizational structures with the purpose of developing the national systems of postgraduate teacher education based on scientific principles of organization and management theory, as well as orientation towards reaching the balance between the interests of all participants, partners, central authorities of education management, regional and local education authorities, school administration, teachers; stimulating innovative activities of teachers, etc. It has been concluded that taking into account European experience in organizing lifelong learning for teachers will allow Ukraine to enhance professional training of teachers, professionalization in self-education, their reflexive practice of searching for effective ways to integrate the latest technologies into the education process.
Nové zdroje inovací - výzvy pro českou ekonomiku a její postavení v globální ekonomice
Globalizace v současné době, zčásti i v důsledku ekonomické krize, přechází do druhé fáze a mezi odborníky se začíná hovořit o tzv. globalizaci 2.0. Ta znamená nejen další silnější propojení světové ekonomiky, ale zejména posilování pozice rozvíjejících se zemí nejen z pohledu výroby, ale především z pohledu spotřeby. Hlavní centra nabídky a poptávky se proměňujía výroba a spotřeba se opět začínají více organizovat ve stejné lokalitě. Rychle se rozvíjející ekonomiky a jejich velmi početná populace se tak podle odborníků i manažerů některých velkých korporací stanou hlavním motorem budoucí poptávky (spotřeby). A tedy i zdrojem pro nové inovace (inovace totiž začíná i končí u zákazníka), které budou díky své jednoduchosti, snadnému použití i nižším nákladům pronikat i na vyspělé trhy. Cílem tohoto článku je jednoduše zhodnotit, jak si v tomto kontextu stojí Česko a také jaké má tato proměna důsledky pro podporu inovací a konkurenceschopnosti.