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Abstract

The development of the art of garden design has brought about the emergence of naturalistic or ecological gardens. This paper presents a brief historical overview of this period in gardening, and provides examples of contemporary applications. Plants can function as absorbents of metals and therefore there is also the possibility of their practical application in techniques for purifying the environment from metallic contamination. An urgent need to create collections of this unique wild plant material has been stressed. Naturalistic gardens designed in appropriate areas have been proposed as an adequate form of setting up in vivo collections composed of numerous native taxa.

Abstract

We investigated habitat preference of Common Sandpipers as part of a monitoring program in the Őrség National Park, Hungary. Field observations were conducted during the summers between 2008 and 2012 along a 47-km long section of the River Rába. During the observations we recorded the number and location of birds on the river bank. We divided the studied area into 1 km long sections and measured the proportion of the visually distinguishable habitat types (water, low gravel and sand bank, vegetation and degraded area) from a digitalized map. Furthermore, we recorded the number of the low banks and the number of bends of the river within each section, as well as the sections’ distance from the closest hydroelectric power plants and human settlements. In 2012 we also performed a detailed habitat mapping, recording the proportion of the vegetation types along the river bank and the number of fishing spots, embankment strengthenings and gravel banks. We tested the correlations between these habitat variables and number of birds present in the river sections. Our results show that Common Sandpipers were observed more frequently in locations which have (1) larger number and area of low gravel and sand banks, (2) less dense vegetation, and (3) lower proportion of degraded habitats. These findings can be taken into account in the conservation management of River Rába

and methods 2.1 Study species A. syriaca is a fast growing, perennial, dicotyledonous species native to the eastern lowlands of North America. The species was brought to Europe as an ornamental plant and also for economic utilization (e.g., latex production) in the 19th century, and by now, it has become naturalized in central and southern European countries ( Bagi, 2008 ). In its invaded range, A. syriaca is mainly found in ruderal habitats (railway tracks, roadsides) and on abandoned agricultural land, deforested areas, or degraded areas ( Kelemen et al., 2016

., Jendele L., Panayiotopoulos K.P., 2006. The influence of uniaxial compression upon pore size distribution in bi-modal soils. Soil Till. Res. 86: 27–37. Kuźnicki F., Białousz S., Skłodowski P., 1979. Basics of soil science with elements of soil cartography. PWN, Warszawa (in Polish). Kwiatkowska-Malina J., 2009. Transformations of organic substances introduced into soils. (Malina G. (Editor). Reclamation and revitalisation of degraded areas. PZiTS o. wielkopolski: 127–140 (in Polish). Maciejewska A., 1994. Research on the properties and fertility of sandy soil after the

References Anděl, J., 1998: Statistické metody. Matfyzpress, Praha, 274 p. Bacia, J., Barzdajn, W., 2007: Effects of soil reclamation on afforestation of degraded areas in the Chocianow Forests District. Sylwan, 151:44–51. Brandi, C., 2015: Safeguarding the earth system as a priority for sustainable development and global ethics: the need for an earth system SDG. Journal of Global Ethics, 11:32–36. Buček, A., Lacina, J., 2001: Harmonická kulturní krajina venkova – sny a realita. In: Tvář naší země – krajina domova. Sborník příspěvků z konference z 21. – 23. února

sunlight exhibited increased CWMs of LS, SLA, and LT, indicating that these environmental factors were associated with light-demanding (faster growing) tree species. However, in areas with low values of these factors, we observed increased CWMs of WD and H max , indicating associations with shade-tolerant (slower growing) species. Restoration practices within degraded areas on limestone hills must consider the extreme environments created by large areas of bare rock, shallow soil, and high light. To achieve successful restoration in these areas, managers should plant

: bioethanol and biodiesel) ( 15 ), as raw material for different industrial uses and also for regeneration of degraded areas. Another advantage of saline agriculture is that commercial cultivation of halophytes might be combined with aquaculture of sea fishes, providing a broader range of products to the food market ( 16 ). A few scientific reports have been published emphasising the economic potential of salt-tolerant plants in agriculture as a source of food, oils, fibres ( 17 ), pharmaceuticals or with environmental potential for protection and biodiversity conservation