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Abstract

The development of the art of garden design has brought about the emergence of naturalistic or ecological gardens. This paper presents a brief historical overview of this period in gardening, and provides examples of contemporary applications. Plants can function as absorbents of metals and therefore there is also the possibility of their practical application in techniques for purifying the environment from metallic contamination. An urgent need to create collections of this unique wild plant material has been stressed. Naturalistic gardens designed in appropriate areas have been proposed as an adequate form of setting up in vivo collections composed of numerous native taxa.

Abstract

Human activity leads to environmental transformations, frequently on a large scale. There are places where anthropogenic consequences are unprecedented and disadvantageous to the extent that can be perceived in terms of an ecocatastrophe that goes beyond the local range. The article presents three anthropogenically degraded areas that pose danger for ecosystems in various parts of the world.

and methods 2.1 Study species A. syriaca is a fast growing, perennial, dicotyledonous species native to the eastern lowlands of North America. The species was brought to Europe as an ornamental plant and also for economic utilization (e.g., latex production) in the 19th century, and by now, it has become naturalized in central and southern European countries ( Bagi, 2008 ). In its invaded range, A. syriaca is mainly found in ruderal habitats (railway tracks, roadsides) and on abandoned agricultural land, deforested areas, or degraded areas ( Kelemen et al., 2016

References Anděl, J., 1998: Statistické metody. Matfyzpress, Praha, 274 p. Bacia, J., Barzdajn, W., 2007: Effects of soil reclamation on afforestation of degraded areas in the Chocianow Forests District. Sylwan, 151:44–51. Brandi, C., 2015: Safeguarding the earth system as a priority for sustainable development and global ethics: the need for an earth system SDG. Journal of Global Ethics, 11:32–36. Buček, A., Lacina, J., 2001: Harmonická kulturní krajina venkova – sny a realita. In: Tvář naší země – krajina domova. Sborník příspěvků z konference z 21. – 23. února

sunlight exhibited increased CWMs of LS, SLA, and LT, indicating that these environmental factors were associated with light-demanding (faster growing) tree species. However, in areas with low values of these factors, we observed increased CWMs of WD and H max , indicating associations with shade-tolerant (slower growing) species. Restoration practices within degraded areas on limestone hills must consider the extreme environments created by large areas of bare rock, shallow soil, and high light. To achieve successful restoration in these areas, managers should plant