B. Murphy, P. Crosson, A.K. Kelly and R. Prendiville
supplementation at pasture showed reduced performance in the current study, but the profitability of the system increased due to savings on feed, which is consistent with the findings of Crosson et al . (2009) . Utilising pasture in a 15-mo bull production system can reduce the overall costsofproduction, but this also presents the challenge of achieving the required market specifications. Although numerous studies have investigated the effects of calf nutrition on performance during the finishing period, many of those studies focussed on the influence of pre
The objective of this study was the model comparison and economic evaluation of different methods of soil tillage and crop stand establishments used. Based on yield results (winter wheat, spring barley, and white mustard cultivated in three-crop rotation) from field experiments with conventional, conservation with minimum tillage, and no-tillage methods conducted at the site Prague-Ruzyně, model economic balances were evaluated. Prices of the main products were determined based on the yield results from the period 2010-2013 and the current market prices. In the individual tillage systems, the total costs of production of evaluated crops were counted up and profitability was calculated as a ratio of profit to total costs. The highest total costs of crop cultivation were identified in cereals under conventional soil tillage, on the contrary, the lowest in cereals cultivated under conservation tillage technology. As for the growing technologies, the highest profitability was found in winter wheat, as for the tillage methods, it was in the conservation variant with minimum tillage. The economic evaluation for individual crops was based on standards of growing technologies and particular work operations.
Sustainability has been a guiding principle of forestry in Europe for the last two hundred years, but at present the principle of sustainability is challenged by global economic pressures, ‘limits to growth’ are unavoidable in the global civilization, but this does not mean that nothing should grow!
Money permits us to use markets to differentiate production and to exchange goods and services. Forestry firms, like all others, are bound to earn more money than their costs of production. In the 19th century investment calculation was first developed by foresters to account for the fact that forestry production necessarily depends on the natural environment which, in financial terms, requires a long-term investment. However, discussions on the ‘soil rent theory’ and efforts to maximize profits from forestry production turned out to be a complete failure. We ask what can we learn from the history of forestry; that in the real world development, society and economics can only be shaped within the limits of nature, technology and human behaviour. Financial thinking may influence the status of the economy, and cannot be changed by intelligent technology, but financial interests shouldn't govern economic thinking to the exclusion of all else.
The latest financial crash and its consequences have demonstrated the dangers of the monetarian ideology, and consequently, we believe that a new concept of new sustainable economic order is needed, in which nature, labour, and technology must be considered as production factors of equal weight. Currently, there is an over-emphasis on ‘capital’ which has traditionally been considered as a production factor in economics, and is weighted to favour monetary interest. However, the politically declared aim of economics in democracy is human interest, and the conservation of nature or ecological interest is required for sustainable production.
What is meant by ‘financial times’? That business leaders as well as politicians generally overvalue the monetary component of the economy, which in consequence skews their view on reality, society and ecology. Banking must support highly specialized production and markets for the exchange of goods. So called financial industries offer ephemeral ‘product’, which are not goods nor services but just ‘money-making’. Their profits and exorbitant wages are depriving working people of revenue and technological resources.
Solutions to the problems of forest economics are to be found outside forestry and contemporary forest policies. The concepts are available that could improve the system, and two of them will be outlined here, although currently there is little evidence that they are likely to be adopted in the present European political system. Nevertheless, sustainable development has been an official policy of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Develeopment (UNCD) since 1992, and we should continue to discuss and promote it.
Justyna Dobrowolska-Iwanek, Maciej Gąstoł, Agnieszka Adamska, Mirosław Krośniak and Paweł Zagrodzki
Bruille J., Barritt B.H., 2004. Global Apple Study - A Comparison of Production Practices and CostsofProduction in Leading Apple Producing Countries. INTERPOMA: 5-16.
Dziubiak M., 2005. Moda na stare odmiany jabłoni, Szkółkarstwo 1: 58-60.
Gerhauser C., 2008. Cancer chemopreventive potential of apples, apple juice and apple components. Planta Med. 74: 1608-1624.
Iacopini P., Camangi F., Stefa ni A., Sebastiani L