Tomasz Dorożyński, Janusz Świerkocki and Wojciech Urbaniak
This paper aims to study the role of various factors in attracting foreign capital to the Province of Lodz. Conclusions are based on the direct questionnaire study conducted among 188 companies with foreign capital which invested in the region. The obtained results indicate that specific Lodz Province (voivodeship) characteristics were of little importance to foreign investors. Both in Poland and in the voivodeship, they were looking for relatively cheap and skilful labour in order to lower their total costs of production. We confirmed that investment incentives were of little importance for the inflow of FDI to the communes and counties of the Province of Lodz. The factors which most discouraged investment in the region were poor transport infrastructure and an uninteresting social infrastructure decisive for the quality of everyday life. Our conclusion is that the inflow of FDI does not eliminate intra-regional disproportions; on the contrary it probably deepens them.
This paper investigates selected short- and mid-term effects in trade in goods between the Visegrad countries (V4: the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and the Slovak Republic) and the Republic of Korea under the framework of the Free Trade Agreement between the European Union and the Republic of Korea. This Agreement is described in the “Trade for All” (2015: 9) strategy as the most ambitious trade deal ever implemented by the EU. The primary purpose of our analysis is to identify, compare, and evaluate the evolution of the technological sophistication of bilateral exports and imports. Another dimension of the paper concentrates on the developments within intra-industry trade. Moreover, these objectives are approached taking into account the context of the South Korean direct investment inflow to the V4. The evaluation of technological sophistication is based on UNCTAD’s methodology, while the intensity of intra-industry trade is measured by the GL-index and identification of its subcategories (horizontal and vertical trade). The analysis covers the timespan 2001–2015. The novelty of the paper lies in the fact that the study of South Korean-V4 trade relations has not so far been carried out from this perspective. Thus this paper investigates interesting phenomena identified in the trade between the Republic of Korea (ROK) and V4 economies. The main findings imply an impact of South Korean direct investments on trade. This is represented by the trade deficit of the V4 with ROK and the structure of bilateral trade in terms of its technological sophistication. South Korean investments might also have had positive consequences for the evolution of IIT, particularly in the machinery sector. The political interpretation indicates that they may strengthen common threats associated with the middle-income trap, particularly the technological gap and the emphasis placed on lower costs of production.
second hypothesis is as follows:
H2: The PWYW payments increase with consumers’ perception of costsofproduction expressed as the share of the product price.
H2a: The PWYW payments increase with consumers’ perception of authors’ reward expressed as the share of the product price.
Our stakeholders found the last two hypotheses interesting in the context of the Polish market for e-books. Prices of e-books in Poland are on average 20–30% lower than prices of paper books. Consumers see this as a minor price difference, and actually expect the price of a digital copy
Bartosz Łamasz, Natalia Iwaszczuk and Oleksandr Ivashchuk
before the sharp fall in prices on the market in mid-2008. It is also worth noting that the above-mentioned uncertainty of crude oil price on the market volatility increased even more after a significant reduction in crude oil prices in the second half of 2014. As Czyżowski  claims, the market lost its reference point in the moment when the strategy of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) was to look to the marginal costsofproduction to support oil prices, progressing from the physical market to the paper market.
It is also worth