The objective of the paper was to determine the costs of production and production effectiveness of pellets made of sawdust and characteristics of logistics of raw material carriage and distribution of pellets. The scope of the paper covered the research carried out in the branch of DREWEX company located in Chotelek town (Świętokrzyskie voivodeship, Province of Busko Zdrój). Unit costs of pellets production were: 513.4 PLN∙t−1 for option 1, 423.3 PLN∙t−1 for option 2 and 393.3 PLN∙t−1 for option 3. The most favourable was option 3 when the pellets were produced on the technology line in the 3-shift system day and night. The average distance to seven cities from which sawdust was delivered was 43.6 km and the distance to which production was distributed to ten cities was on average 105.5 km.
Tomasz Rydzkowski, Iwona Michalska-Pożoga, Marcin Szczepanek and Martin Kendra
In recent years lean thinking (also referred as slim) increases its popularity not only in industry, but also in the entire business world. There are many confirmed effects demonstrating the high effectiveness of this philosophy: a clear improvement of economic indicators, an increase in current satisfaction and the acquisition of new clients; better, stable quality of offered products and services; efficient organization of production; more effective management; high productivity of work and production; minimizing the costs of production and storage of stocks. Why is Lean implementation in our domestic conditions not easy and sometimes ineffective? In this study we will try to answer these very important questions.
The article presents the problem of supply chain optimization from the perspective of a multimodal logistics provider and includes a mathematical model of multilevel cost optimization in the form of MILP (Mixed Integer Linear Programming). The costs of production, transport, distribution and environmental protection were adopted as optimization criteria. Timing, volume, capacity and mode of transport were also taken into account. The model was implemented in the LINGO ver.12. The numerical experiments were carried out using sample data to show the possibilities of practical decision support and supply chain optimization.
Before analysing the economic situation of winegrape production, it is practical to mention some issues concerning the industry. Grape production in Hungary suffered a severe crisis in the 1990’s regarding both production and sales. Its consequence is the decreasing area of grape production and the reducing number of grape producers. Lately, after our EU accession the grape and wine verticum has significantly improved. The situation is still grave today as the producers have to face the more and more intense competition in the market and cheap import products both on the national and international markets. Grape production is in a more disadvantaged situation than wine making and the risks are higher. We have to know the cost-profit situation of the well-discernible verticum parts to make recommendations. Despite the changes, the great fluctuation in income is typical for the industry. Grape is one of the plants where price often did not cover costs in the consecutive years. Costs of production cannot be assessed on their own. They can be judged in relation with the yield changes in real.
The objective of this study was the model comparison and economic evaluation of different methods of soil tillage and crop stand establishments used. Based on yield results (winter wheat, spring barley, and white mustard cultivated in three-crop rotation) from field experiments with conventional, conservation with minimum tillage, and no-tillage methods conducted at the site Prague-Ruzyně, model economic balances were evaluated. Prices of the main products were determined based on the yield results from the period 2010-2013 and the current market prices. In the individual tillage systems, the total costs of production of evaluated crops were counted up and profitability was calculated as a ratio of profit to total costs. The highest total costs of crop cultivation were identified in cereals under conventional soil tillage, on the contrary, the lowest in cereals cultivated under conservation tillage technology. As for the growing technologies, the highest profitability was found in winter wheat, as for the tillage methods, it was in the conservation variant with minimum tillage. The economic evaluation for individual crops was based on standards of growing technologies and particular work operations.
The paper presents the second part of the study of “sponsored goods” in the cultural sector. It describes economic activities of theaters, concert organizations and museums in three dimensional index space coordinate axes being the lag of labor productivity, faster growth of salaries and tickets prices in relation to the corresponding macroeconomic indices. The methodology of constructing such indexes and statistical data used for this purpose are described in the first article published under the title “Symptoms and consequences of Baumol’s cost disease in cultural sector: an econometric study of “sponsored goods”. The aim of the present article is to construct and analyse econometric model of cost disease based on statistical data on activities of Russian theaters, concert organizations and museums for the period of 1994-2010.
The regression analysis based on structural model that reflects theoretically predictable links was chosen as a method of study. Such links include first, influence on cost growth of lag of labour productivity in arts organisations and parallel trend in salaries. Second, dependence of increase of income of such organizations on dynamics of labour productivity and ticket prices, third, balanced equation - product of equilibrium conditions for sponsored goods that describes the interrelation between costs of production, prices and budget subsidies.
The calculations made it possible to construct basic and modified econometric models that establish statistical correlations between income deficit and three regressors, namely indexes of labour productivity, salaries and ticket prices. As a result of this model the article presents projections of regression relation of income deficit on «expenditures plane», «income plane» and «economic results plane». Theequations derived allow to conclude that there is a statistically significant income deficit negative elasticity by labour productivity index, positive elasticity by salaries index and ticket price index, as well as rising dynamics of Russian performing arts organization income deficit and its compensation in the nearest future.
This paper investigates selected short- and mid-term effects in trade in goods between the Visegrad countries (V4: the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and the Slovak Republic) and the Republic of Korea under the framework of the Free Trade Agreement between the European Union and the Republic of Korea. This Agreement is described in the “Trade for All” (2015: 9) strategy as the most ambitious trade deal ever implemented by the EU. The primary purpose of our analysis is to identify, compare, and evaluate the evolution of the technological sophistication of bilateral exports and imports. Another dimension of the paper concentrates on the developments within intra-industry trade. Moreover, these objectives are approached taking into account the context of the South Korean direct investment inflow to the V4. The evaluation of technological sophistication is based on UNCTAD’s methodology, while the intensity of intra-industry trade is measured by the GL-index and identification of its subcategories (horizontal and vertical trade). The analysis covers the timespan 2001–2015. The novelty of the paper lies in the fact that the study of South Korean-V4 trade relations has not so far been carried out from this perspective. Thus this paper investigates interesting phenomena identified in the trade between the Republic of Korea (ROK) and V4 economies. The main findings imply an impact of South Korean direct investments on trade. This is represented by the trade deficit of the V4 with ROK and the structure of bilateral trade in terms of its technological sophistication. South Korean investments might also have had positive consequences for the evolution of IIT, particularly in the machinery sector. The political interpretation indicates that they may strengthen common threats associated with the middle-income trap, particularly the technological gap and the emphasis placed on lower costs of production.
Tomasz Dorożyński, Janusz Świerkocki and Wojciech Urbaniak
This paper aims to study the role of various factors in attracting foreign capital to the Province of Lodz. Conclusions are based on the direct questionnaire study conducted among 188 companies with foreign capital which invested in the region. The obtained results indicate that specific Lodz Province (voivodeship) characteristics were of little importance to foreign investors. Both in Poland and in the voivodeship, they were looking for relatively cheap and skilful labour in order to lower their total costs of production. We confirmed that investment incentives were of little importance for the inflow of FDI to the communes and counties of the Province of Lodz. The factors which most discouraged investment in the region were poor transport infrastructure and an uninteresting social infrastructure decisive for the quality of everyday life. Our conclusion is that the inflow of FDI does not eliminate intra-regional disproportions; on the contrary it probably deepens them.
Blanka Horváthová, Ľuboslav Dulina, Eleonóra Bigošová, Miroslava Barbušová and Martin Gašo
Andersson, B. J., Ortengren, R., Nachemson, A.L., Elfström, G. and Broman H. (1975). The sitting posture: an electromyographic and discometric study. The Orthopedic clinics of North America, pp. 105-120.
Berlin, C., Adams, C. (2017). Production Ergonomics: Designing Work Systems to Support Optimal human Performance. London: Ubility Press, pp. 127-138.
Bršiak, V., Kotrbancová, M. and Bršiak, M. (2014). Prevencia a liečba bolesti chrbta. Púchov: Pro Benefit s.r.o.
Bubeník, P. (2004). A scheduling system for minimizing the costsof
Sustainability has been a guiding principle of forestry in Europe for the last two hundred years, but at present the principle of sustainability is challenged by global economic pressures, ‘limits to growth’ are unavoidable in the global civilization, but this does not mean that nothing should grow!
Money permits us to use markets to differentiate production and to exchange goods and services. Forestry firms, like all others, are bound to earn more money than their costs of production. In the 19th century investment calculation was first developed by foresters to account for the fact that forestry production necessarily depends on the natural environment which, in financial terms, requires a long-term investment. However, discussions on the ‘soil rent theory’ and efforts to maximize profits from forestry production turned out to be a complete failure. We ask what can we learn from the history of forestry; that in the real world development, society and economics can only be shaped within the limits of nature, technology and human behaviour. Financial thinking may influence the status of the economy, and cannot be changed by intelligent technology, but financial interests shouldn't govern economic thinking to the exclusion of all else.
The latest financial crash and its consequences have demonstrated the dangers of the monetarian ideology, and consequently, we believe that a new concept of new sustainable economic order is needed, in which nature, labour, and technology must be considered as production factors of equal weight. Currently, there is an over-emphasis on ‘capital’ which has traditionally been considered as a production factor in economics, and is weighted to favour monetary interest. However, the politically declared aim of economics in democracy is human interest, and the conservation of nature or ecological interest is required for sustainable production.
What is meant by ‘financial times’? That business leaders as well as politicians generally overvalue the monetary component of the economy, which in consequence skews their view on reality, society and ecology. Banking must support highly specialized production and markets for the exchange of goods. So called financial industries offer ephemeral ‘product’, which are not goods nor services but just ‘money-making’. Their profits and exorbitant wages are depriving working people of revenue and technological resources.
Solutions to the problems of forest economics are to be found outside forestry and contemporary forest policies. The concepts are available that could improve the system, and two of them will be outlined here, although currently there is little evidence that they are likely to be adopted in the present European political system. Nevertheless, sustainable development has been an official policy of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Develeopment (UNCD) since 1992, and we should continue to discuss and promote it.