Olga Gójska-Zygner, Justyna Bartosik, Paweł Górski and Wojciech Zygner
correlation with serum hypoosmolality), high urine osmolality (strongly correlated with high specific gravity), lack of clinical signs of hypovolaemia, high urinary sodium concentration (higher than 30 mEq/L), no detection of renal insufficiency, hypothyroidism, or hypocorticism, and no recent use of thiazide diuretics ( 9 , 24 ).
SIADH in humans may result from eutopic or ectopic secretion of ADH, and it has been recognised in neoplastic diseases ( e.g . bronchogenic carcinoma or leukaemia), lung diseases ( e.g . pneumonia or asthma), cerebral diseases ( e
Hatice Esra Çolakoğlu, Murat Onur Yazlık, Mert Pekcan, Ufuk Kaya, Cihan Kaçar, Mehmet Rıfat Vural, Serdal Kurt, Merve Menekse Yildirim, Ahmet Bas and Şükrü Küplülü
animal’s energy reserves ( 16 ) as an indirect measurement of fat metabolism and its correlation with energy metabolism ( 12 ). The incidence of metabolic disorders and their relationship with BCS has been studied since BCS relates to the fertility status of dairy cows ( 4 , 16 , 38 ).
It is known that serum metabolites, calcium concentrations and BCS alter during early lactation. The relationship of blood metabolites and ions to the degree of BCS loss during the dry period may provide important information for herd management and reproduction ( 21 ). Prepartum BCS
order to determine the difference between the variables before and after milking in each group. The differences were considered significant at P < 0.05. Data were expressed as mean ± standard error. Correlations among genes were analysed using Spearman’s rank correlation test and significance was determined at P < 0.01 or P < 0.05.
The numbers of bacteria in aerobic and anaerobic cultures in CFU/ml were 89.17 ± 25.0 and 82.25 ± 31.28 before milking, and 34.08 ± 16.51 and 45.08 ± 0.68 after milking, respectively, in the positive group. Strains of detected
isolates), O2 (6 isolates), O18 (6 isolates), O45 (5 isolates), O1 (5 isolates), and O4 (3 isolates).
Phylogenetic typing. Phylogenetic types were determined using PCR, and phylotype A proved to be the most prevalent phylogenetic group, to which 44.34% (47 out of 106) affiliated. In the remaining 59 isolates, 32 belonged to phylogenetic group B2, 15 to B1, and 12 to D ( Table 1 ). The correlation of the O-serotype with the phylogenetic group was also examined ( Table 2 ).
Phylogenetic groups of 106 APEC strains
Ewelina Czyżewska-Dors, Małgorzata Pomorska-Mól, Arkadiusz Dors, Aneta Pluta, Katarzyna Podgórska, Krzysztof Kwit, Ewelina Stasiak and Anna Łukomska
gamma (IFN-γ) has been well documented as an important factor determining disease severity ( 1 , 15 ). In acutely SIV-infected pigs, a significant correlation was found between lung lesions and lung concentrations of IL-1β, interleukin-8 (IL-8), and TNF-α ( 24 ).
So far, experimental studies dealing with PRRSV and SIV infections conducted in conventional pigs have been focused on clinical manifestation and production performance. Nevertheless, little is known about the effect of concurrent infection with PRRSV and SIV on local innate immune response at the
Iwona Matraszek-Żuchowska, Barbara Woźniak, Katarzyna Sielska and Andrzej Posyniak
from the follicle ( 24 ). Steroid esters may not only be adsorbed on the surface but also absorbed during hair growth, due to the relatively high lipophilicity ( 12 ). In the growing strand of hair, the drug molecules move on the principle of passive diffusion from the blood supply, hence the accumulation of drugs in a given form in this matrix, however, there are no data defining the relationship between the length of the hair and the dose of administration ( 15 ). Studies of hair segments indicate that there is no correlation between the time of drug incorporation
Jim Weber, Markus Zenker, Gábor Köller, Manfred Fürll and Markus Freick
diagnostic measures such as determination of acute phase proteins (haptoglobin and serum amyloid A) or cerebrospinal fluid analysis to identify central nervous system lesions could have helped to find further correlations between RDC and healthy cows ( 1 , 30 ). It would also have been desirable to include a larger number of cattle in the two groups. However, the comparison of RDC and CDC exposed to equal nutritional and housing conditions should be of interest.
In conclusion, the present study provides information about the clinical background as well as blood serum
it induces the ferric citrate transport system, where it competes with lactoferrin for iron. Recent research has shown that the milk citrate level has a positive correlation with milk BHBA and fat ( 9 ). In the present study, it was not clear whether the increased milk citrate level was caused by mitochondrial injury in the mammary gland and further research is needed to clarify this issue, but milk citrate was identified as an early indicator of NEB.
The ingestion characteristics related to ketosis in dairy cows were also evaluated in this study by analysing the
Ewa Paździor, Agnieszka Pękala-Safińska and Dariusz Wasyl
such as the ability to produce proteases, lipases, and exoenzymes such as haemolysins was confirmed ( 8 , 17 , 22 , 28 ). However, the relationship between the pathogenicity of the S. putrefaciens group and production of enzymes has not been definitively explained. Interactions between bacteria and host cells also play an important role in fish diseases. The adhesion ability to epithelial cells of a few isolates of S. putrefaciens collected from humans and the environment has previously been studied; however, no correlation between pathogenicity and adhesion
Yu-Xi Song, Pan Hu, Yun-Long Bai, Chang Zhao, Cheng Xia and Chuang Xu
by the catabolism of skeletal muscle tissue ( 29 ). L-alanine was significantly correlated with NEFA, which is an important indicator of fat mobilisation ( 1 ). In energy deficiency or energy metabolism disorders, fat is mobilised to meet energy needs. The increase in NEFA indicated increased fat mobilisation due to energy metabolism disorders, so there exists a certain correlation between L-alanine and NEFA ( 8 ). L-pyroglutamic acid is involved in GSH metabolism, and is a downstream product of GSH transport amino acids. This acid was slightly negatively