The purpose of this study is to determine the morphometric characterization of Dubska Pramenka sheep and to establish a relationship between the most important body measurements of ewes and rams within the strain. The Dubska Pramenka is one of the biggest strains within the Pramenka breed. The wither heights of ewes and rams were 73.37 cm and 79.92 cm respectively, whereas the body lengths were 74.66 cm (ewes) and 80.42 cm (rams), and the rump heights were 73.72 cm (female) and 80.16 cm (male). Based on the data presented, it is evident that the Dubska Pramenka sheep has almost a square body shape with the rump height slightly greater than the wither height. The chest depth and shoulder width of ewes were 34.50 cm and 22.72 cm respectively, whereas those of males were 36.17 cm and 23.75 cm. In both sheep genders, the hip width (ewes 21.92 cm, rams 22.91 cm) was lower than the shoulder width. The chest and shin perimeters of females were 98.72 cm and 9.31 cm respectively, whereas those of males were 103.25 cm and 10.91 cm. The most significant correlation and statistical significance were recorded in relation to the measured wither and rump heights (r = 0.856 for females, r = 0.856 for males) due to their constant increase during the growth and development of sheep. Conversely, the measurements of rump heights and chest perimeters did not indicate any correlation (r = −0.028 for ewes, r = 0.004 for rams).
REFERENCES ARANGO J., MISTZAL I., TSURUTA S., CULBERTSON M., HERRING W.: Threshold-linear estimation of genetic parameters for farrowing mortality, litter size, and test performance of Large White sows. J. Anim. Sci., 83: 499-506, 2005. CHEN P., BAAS T.J., MABRY J.W., KOEHLER K.J.: Genetic correlations between lean growth and litter traits in U.S. Yorkshire, Duroc, Hampshire and Landrace pigs. J. Anim. Sci., 81: 1700-1705, 2003. CLUTER A.C., BRASCAMP E.W.: Performance traits. In: The genetics of the pig, Ed. Rothschild M.F., Ruvinsky A., CAB International: 427
From the economic perspective, the western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera sp. virgifera (Col., Chrysomelidae), poses the gravest threat to the field maize production in Serbia. The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of WCR larvae on the morphology of maize characters during a low-level artificial egg infestation. A field experiment involving the Serbian cultivar ‘NS-640’ was carried out in Bečej, Vojvodina Serbia, in 2016. In the experimental field, a total of 96 maize plants were selected, marked and arranged in 48 pairs. Each pair consisted of an infested plant (WCR eggs injected in the root zone) and an uninfested plant (distillate water injected in the root zone). The number of leaves, height and stem diameter of the plants observed were recorded. Root damage and root weight were measured and evaluated at the end of the trail. For the purpose of statistical analysis, the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance and a correlation matrix were used. The statistical analysis performed indicate a highly significant difference in the number of leaves and plant height between the infested and uninfested maize plants examined in July (the third field observation). During the last field inspection, significant differences were recorded only between the stem diameters of the infested and uninfested maize plants. A negative correlation was found to exist between the root damage and root weight of the plant pairs. There were positive correlations between the stem diameter, plant height and number of leaves of the infested plants, whereas positive correlations were found between the root damage and plant height of the uninfested plants.
Sweet cherries (Prunus avium L.) contain various phenolic compounds which contribute to total antioxidant activity. The present study was conducted to assess the antioxidant activity of 15 sweet cherry cultivars from Vojvodina province (north Serbia). The free radical scavenging properties of fruits were evaluated employing two different methodologies, including DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging assay and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Strong correlations were found between total phenolics, tannins, flavonoids and anthocyanins and DPPH and FRAP assays. In particular, cultivar Peter showed the highest antioxidant capacity and possesses the highest amount of measured phenolic compounds. This investigation shows large variability among sweet cherry cultivars in measured chemical attributes.
The purpose of this paper is to analyze relations between seed quality characteristics and the influence of contaminated urban areas on seed quality of sycamore maple trees in different locations across Novi Sad (Serbia). This research analyzed seed germination of 29 adult trees of sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) and its red leaf variety (Acer pseudoplatanus ‘atropurpureum’ Späth.). Our results indicate a medium strong positive correlation between seed weight and viable seed. Sycamore maple trees from the same urban typology do not have significant influence on seed quality characteristics, while different urban typology has such influence. These results explain the negative influence of urban areas on seed quality characteristics. For selection of high value trees in urbanized and contaminated areas, seed quality can be the indicator of adaptability to stress related conditions.
Organic food market in Serbia is characterized by underdeveloped supply and limited demand. Demand of organically produced food has certain specifics. Paper analyzes research results of domestic and foreign authors aiming to identify key characteristics and to carry out a systematization of the factors that determine demand and consumption of organic products in Serbian and foreign markets. The aim of the research is to develop demographic profile of organic consumers, and to provide a picture of “typical” organic consumer.
Most authors agree that there is a positive correlation between the level of education and consumption of organic products. Studies conducted in Serbia suggest that concern for health is one of the most important factors of buying organic products, while foreign customers, in addition, are also motivated by environmental and animal welfare attributes, and with desire to consume “local” food. In both groups of consumers sensory characteristics of the product were recognized as the key factors for the consumption of organic products. Price is one of the relevant factors that limit the purchase of these products. Significant attention was paid to marketing channels. Since domestic organic producers are underdeveloped and unadjusted to customers’ requirements, getting familiar with the basic characteristics of buyers of organic food is the starting point for development of adequate marketing concept for growers, processors and retail of this group of products.
The aim of this research was to investigate the microbial activity in forest soil from different sites under deciduous and coniferous trees in Serbia. One site on Stara planina was under beech trees (Fagus sp.) while another under mixture of spruce (Picea sp.) and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga sp.). The site on Kopaonik was under mixture of beech (Fagus sp.) and spruce (Picea sp.) trees. The site on Tara was dominantly under fir (Abies sp.), beech (Fagus sp.) and spruce (Picea sp.). The total number of bacteria, the number of actinobacteria, fungi and microorganisms involved in N and C cycles were determined using standard method of agar plates. The activities of dehydrogenase and ß-glucosidase enzymes were measured by spectrophotometric methods. The microbial activity was affected by tree species and sampling time. The highest dehydrogenase activity, total number of bacteria, number of actinobacteria, aminoheterotrophs, amylolytic and cellulolytic microorganisms were determined in soil under beech trees. The highest total number of fungi and number of pectinolytic microorganisms were determined in soil under spruce and Douglas fir trees. The correlation analyses proved the existence of statistically significant interdependency among investigated parameters.
The modern apple production involves the use of large amounts of pesticides that can be found in processed products such as apple juice. Harmful effects of pesticide residues on humans, especially children, are well known, hence the content of pesticide residues in fruit, vegetables and their juices should be controlled. This study presents an application of a new, relatively simple and reliable analytical method for qualitative and quantitative determination of three organophosphorus and one organonitrogen pesticide residues in apple juices. The analysis utilizes reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) followed by UV diode array detection. Prior to HPLC analysis, a solid-phase extraction (SPE) was used for analytes concentration and sample clean-up. Specificity, selectivity, linearity, precision, accuracy and limit of quantification (LOQ) were examined to assess the validity of the developed method. The method had satisfactory values of multiple correlation coefficients for calibration curves (R2 ≥ 0.95
). The precision was evaluated for the retention times and peak areas, and the estimated values for relative standard deviations (RSD) were 0.05 % - 0.18 % and 0.09 % - 0.62 %, respectively, which indicated an excellent precision of the proposed method. Under the established conditions, the recovery of analytes was 93.80 % - 119.41 %, with relative standard deviations below 0.56 %. This method was successfully applied for determination of some organophosphorus and organonitrogen pesticide residues in apple juices which were taken from Macedonian markets. The achieved values for LOQs were low enough compared to the MRLs of the investigated pesticides in apple according to the Regulation (EC) No 396/2005. Detectable residues of the examined pesticides were not found in the analyzed samples.
The apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) possesses a number of health-promoting properties. The main beneficial effects of apple fruits on human health are associated with the antioxidant properties of components synthesising in apple fruits during their growth and development. Phenolic compounds and flavonoids are such components that contribute significantly to the antioxidant capacity of fruits, thus enhancing their health properties. The purpose of this study is to compare the antioxidant properties (namely antioxidant capacity, ascorbic acid, total phenolic and flavonoid contents) of the ‘Idared’ and ‘Braeburn’ apple cultivars, grown under optimal growing conditions in the Goražde area. Ascorbic acid contents were estimated using the 2.6-dichlorophenolindophenol titration method, whereas total phenolics were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Furthermore, total flavonoids were determined using the aluminium chloride colorimetric assay, whereas the ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay was used to determine the total antioxidant capacity of the apple fruits examined. The average values of the ascorbic acid, the total phenolic and flavonoids contents, and the total antioxidant capacity of the ‘Idared’ apples under consideration were 8.09 mg 100 g−1, 34.56 mg gallic acid equivalents 100 g−1, 12.62 mg catechin equivalents 100 g−1 and 323.28 μmol Fe2+ 100 g−1of fresh weight, respectively. The average values of the total phenolic and flavonoids contents, as well as the antioxidant capacity of the ‘Braeburn’ apples examined were as follows: 8.89 mg 100 g−1, 33.4 mg gallic acid equivalents 100 g−1, 13.56 mg catechin equivalents 100 g−1 and 367.01 μmol Fe2+ 100 g−1 of fresh weight, respectively. The analyses performed indicate that the differences recorded in the parameter values between the apple cultivars ‘Idared’ and ‘Braeburn’ were statistically non-significant. A correlation data analysis confirmed that phenolic compounds are the carriers of the antioxidant activity of apples.
.: Evaluation of blackcurrant genetic resources for sustainable production. J. Fruit Ornam. Plant Res., 12: 147-158, 2004. KIVIJARVI, P., TUOVINEN, T., KEMPPAINEN, R.: Mulches and pheromones - plant protection tools for organic black currant production. In: NJF Report, Nordic Assoc. Agric. Sci., 1(1)87-90, 2005. LARSSON, L.: Evaluation of mulching in organically grown black currant ( Ribes nigrum ) in terms of its effects on the crop and the environment. Acta Univ. Agric. Sueciae Agraria, 28: 1-26,1997. MADRY, W., PLUTA, S., ZURAWICZ, E. Genetic and environmental correlation