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diabetes mellitus and their possible correlation. J Radioanal Nucl Chem 2008; 276:85-93.
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15. Sheded MG, Pulford ID, Hamed AI. Presence of major and trace elements in seven medicinal
Ali Azizi, Hamidreza Ardalani and Bernd Honermeier
unified mixed-model method for association mapping that accounts for multiple levels of relatedness. Nat Genet 2006; 38(2):203-8. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng1702
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20. Azizi A, Yan F, Honermeier B. Herbage yield, essential oil content and composition of three oregano
Functional diversity and detritus soil food web of soil inhabiting nematodes in natural woodland dominated by Acacia nilotica L. was studied. Functional diversity was studied in terms of trophic groups assessed by Trophic diversity index (TDI) and Shannon-Weaver index (H′), while food web was diagnosed by channel index (CI). The plant parasitic channel was determined by plant parasitic index (PPI). The stability of the soil ecosystem was measured in terms of maturity index (MI), structure index (SI) and enrichment index (EI). Shannon-Weaver index of the area was recorded as 2.1 ± 0.3 while trophic diversity index 2.6 ± 0.7, maturity index (MI) 3.1 ± 0.2, channel index 62.4 ± 28.1 and structure and enrichment indices 68.1 ± 18.5 and 15.4 ± 13.7 respectively. A high degree of positive correlation was recorded between population of dorylaims and MI while some degree of negative correlation existed between population of plant parasitic nematodes and MI. Population of other nematodes showed a positive correlation with SI and EI. The faunal profile was found to be tilted towards quadrat C giving the idea of relatively undisturbed ecosystem with moderate enrichment and fungal decomposition channel.
Zbigniew Marczyński, Beata Skibska, Sławomira Nowak, Jerzy Jambor and Marian Mikołaj Zgoda
Introduction: Using the general Hildebrand-Scatchard-Fedors theory of solubility, the mole fraction (x2) of solubility of phytochemicals contained in the dry green tea leaves was calculated which determines the profile of pharmacological activity.
Objective: The applicative purpose of the study was to estimate the actual solubility of phytochemicals – S|real.| [mol/dm3] in water and in water-ethanol solutions of diversified polarity (εM) for their selective extraction and optimal formulation of oral solid dosage form.
Methods: The basic physico-chemical and structural quantities of phytochemicals and corresponding mathematical equations of general Hildebrand-Scatchard-Fedors theory of solubility were used to calculate the actual solubility – S|real.| and the level of hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB).
Results: The calculated actual solubility values – S|real.| [mol/dm3] collated with correlation equations enabled the assessment of phytochemical capability for the process of mass exchange on phase boundary. Correlation equations for the dependence log P = f (– log S|real.|) point to the structural preferences of phytochemicals in the kinetics of the mass exchange (diffusion) through the natural phase boundary.
Conclusions: Calculations and correlations between the values characterizing the actual solubility – S|real.|, media polarity (water, ethanol and their solutions) and the partition coefficient (log P) including the level of hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) show that basing on thermodynamic components of the general Hildebrand-Scatchard-Fedors theory of solubility, the diffusion profile of phytochemicals contained in the green tea extract (Ext. Camellia sinensis L. aqu. siccum) through the biological phase boundary as well as optimal choice of the extraction medium for selective extraction of the class of phytochemicals can be estimated.
Agnieszka Rosińska, Hanna Dorna, Dorota Szopińska, Lidia Irzykowska and Katarzyna Seidler-Łożykowska
Introduction: : Milk thistle (Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn.) is an important medicinal plant. Achenes of milk thistle contain sylimarin, protecting liver cells against toxic compounds.
Objective: The aim of the research was to find an optimum method of evaluation of milk thistle seed germination.
Methods: Ten seed samples were tested. The seeds were germinated: on top of blotter paper, on top of blotter paper after seed disinfection, between pleated blotter paper, in rolled blotter paper and in sand. Germination at the first and final counts, the percentages of abnormal seedlings and dead seeds were determined. The correlation coefficients between seed germination, evaluated with various methods, and seedling emergence were calculated. Moreover, fungi associated with seeds and diseased seedlings were identified.
Results: The lowest percentage of normal seedlings was observed after germination on the top of blotter. Highly significant positive correlations were noted between seedling emergence and seed germination at the final count evaluated in rolled paper, between pleated paper and in sand. The fungi from genera: Alternaria, Fusarium, Penicillium, Trichoderma, Ulocladium and Verticillium were frequently identified on seeds and seedlings.
Conclusions: Infestation with fungi significantly affected milk thistle seed germination and plant emergence. Germination in rolled blotter paper may be recommended for evaluation of milk thistle seed germination, as the most practical and significantly correlated with seedling emergence.
L. Košuthová, J. Koščo, D. Miklisová, V. Letková, P. Košuth and P. Manko
Data on prevalence and current distribution of the cestode Nippotaenia mogurndae Yamaguti and Miyata, 1940 (Nippotaeniidea) in Slovakia, are provided. A total of 163 fish from 8 localities of different types in the Tisa River basin were infected with N. mogurndae. The mean intensity of infection was 1.8 with a maximum of 5 tapeworms. The expansion of the distribution of the cestode corresponds well with the spreading of its host, the invasive fish Amur sleeper Perccottus glenii Dybowski, 1877. The Spearmann correlation coefficient was used to test the relationship between the intensity of infection and standard length of the fish (r = 0.36; n = 163; P < 0.05), condition coefficient of the fish (r = 0.22; n = 115; P < 0.05) and season (r = −0.37; n = 355; P < 0.05). A significant correlation was confirmed for each pair of variables. There is a statistically significant difference between the prevalence of the cestode in two functional size groups (t = 3.28; n = 163; P < 0.05). The prevalence of the cestode increased with the standard length of fish. The potential risk of further expansion of N. mogurndae to other countries is discussed.
The accumulation of heavy metals (Cu, Fe, Zn and Mn) was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry in some organs of tench (Tinca tinca L., 1758) and tissues of its parasite collected from Beyşehir Lake, and compared with the data from sediments and water. The Cu levels in L. intestinalis L., 1758 plerocercoids were 1.69 times, respectively, higher than those in fish gill. Zn level in L. intestinalis plerocercoids was 2.13 times higher than those in fish liver, was 5.53 times higher than that of the muscle and 3.33 times higher than that in the gill. Significant negative (for Mn) correlation was found between the quantity of heavy metals in water and tissues of L. intestinalis plerocercoids while there was significant negative (for Cu) correlation between the quantity the heavy metals in bottom sediment and tissues of L. intestinalis plerocercoids. This study supports the idea that cestodes aren’t very useful to determine the heavy metal pollution in aquatic system when they are located in their intermediate host’s body cavity.
The effect of lead on soil nematode communities at the 0–20 cm depth was investigated along an increasing distance from a highway in Northeast China. The results showed that the abundance of total nematodes significantly increased from 40 m and then decreased eventually and the similar trend was also found in most indices studied. Thirty seven genera of nematodes belonging to 8 orders and 24 families were observed in our study, and Helicotylenchus was eudominant genus at all the sampling sites. The numbers of total nematodes significantly correlated with total and available Pb (P < 0.05), while ΣMI had a significantly negative correlation with TOC, Total N (P < 0.01) and C/N ratio (P < 0.05). Total and available Pb in soil had positive correlation with the numbers of total nematodes and bacterivores. The concentration of Pb also had an effect on abundance of Helicotylenchus, which increased in moderate concentration of Pb. NCR could be effectively used as indicators, as it was sensitive to concentration of Pb.
Raw materials containing methylxanthine alkaloids such as yerba mate, guaraná, white and green tea, coffee seeds, chocolate and cacao seed powder and extracts obtained from these raw materials were investigated for their antioxidant features and the amount of phenolic compounds. The level of phenolic compounds was measured with the colorimetric method using Folin-Ciocalteu’s phenol reagent and antioxidant features was determined with the use of DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical). Amounts of phenolic compounds were presented in percentages per mass of extracts and mass of raw materials. Antiradical potential was shown as the number of TAUDPPH units per mg of extracts and g of raw materials. The highest number of antiradical units TAUDPPH as well as the amount of phenolic compounds was calculated for white tea and its extracts and lowest for chocolate. The correlation coefficient between the content of phenolics and antiradical features of raw materials is equal to r=0.994.