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Eisa Ebrahimi Dorche, Pejman Fathi and Alireza Esmaeili Ofogh
Wetlands are among the most productive ecosystems in the world. They provide numerous beneficial services for people and wildlife. The most important services are improving water quality and wildlife habitats. The complex, dynamic relationships between the organisms inhabiting the wetland environment are called food webs. Both water quality and high levels of nutrients are crucial for improvement of the food web. Many bird species rely on wetlands for food, water and shelter, especially during migration and breeding. The water quality of Choghakhor Wetland was evaluated from April 2010 to March 2011, by measuring some physicochemical parameters and doing benthic macroinvertebrate analysis. Sampling was done in 3 replicates with alternation of 45 days. The resolute was divided into more than 25 identified macroinvertebrate families which belonged to 5 classes and 12 orders. The correlation between biological indices and water quality parameters showed that bioindicators and community indices could be used for the evaluation of water quality in this wetland. The water quality of Choghakhor Wetland was classified as average or in the severe pollution class, according to these indices. It can be concluded that bird migration is at risk due to the decline in the overall health of the Choghakhor Wetland ecosystem.
Khadija Diani, Ilias Kacimi, Mahmoud Zemzami, Hassan Tabyaoui and Ali Torabi Haghighi
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application is unforeseeable in the Ss. It can therefore be assumed that texture-dependent differences in the relationship between the BAS and the RI exist, because positive correlations between reduced wettability and increasing microbial activity can be detected in the Ss, but not in Ut3. This positive correlation is also described by Feeney et al. (2006) and Annabi et al. (2007) . The enhanced microbial activity may result in an increased production of exudates and mucilage which may provoke hydrophobic conditions in the Ss. The increment of microbial biomass may lead
Reinhard W. Neugschwandtner, Silvia Papst, Johannes Kemetter, Helmut Wagentristl, Ondřej Sedlář and Hans-Peter Kaul
larger seeds may enable a higher germination can be drawn from the results. Guberac et al. (1998) have shown for oat and Gross (1984) for six monocarpic perennial plants that larger seed size resulted in higher germination (due to the larger endosperm).
With increasing seed size, higher soil coverage occurred in the first year, probably due to higher emergence and/or higher early vigor of seedlings and plants emerging from larger seeds. A positive correlation of seedling growth with seed size (and seed N content) has been shown for maize ( Krug, 1969 ). Soil
Franziska Mairhofer, Norbert Barta, Pia Euteneuer, Julia Schuster, Alexander Bauer and Andreas Gronauer
hand, observed no significant correlation between the TD of a cultivator (0.05, 0.10, and 0.15 m) and the degree of soil coverage. Figure 1 shows the marked differences in results with the two methods: The line transect method resulted in a high degree of coverage with all three TD, while the mean values (MV) of the image analysis were significantly lower for all three TD. In the studies of Walther (2009) and Winnige et al. (1998) , the line transect method also resulted in a higher degree of soil coverage compared to image analysis. Pforte (2010) explained
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