N. Akhshi, F. Nazarian Firouzabadi, K. Cheghamirza and H.R. Dorri
Board J.E., Kang M.S., Harville B.G., 1999 - Path analyses of the yield formation process for late-planted soybean. Agron. J., 91:128-135.
Bozoglu H., Gulumser A., 1999 - An investigation on the determination correlations and heritabilities of some agronomical characters in Dry Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Third Field Crops Congress (15-18 November, 1999). Pasture, Forage Crops and Edible Legumes, 3: 360-365.
Cokkizgin A., Colkesen M., Idikut L., Ozsisli B., Girgel U., 2013 - Determination of
M. Ahsan, M.M. Hussain, A. Farooq, I. Khaliq, J. Farooq, Q. Ali and M. Kashif
Ashraf M., 1989 - Effect of water stress on maize cultivars during the vegetative stage. Ann. Arid Zone 28: 47-55
Bocev B.V., 1963 - Maize selection at an initial phase of development. Kukuruzu (Maize). Pl. Br. Abat 1:54
Dewey O.R., K.H. Lu, 1959 - A correlation and path coefficient analysis of components of crested wheatgrass seed production. J. Agron 57: 515-518
Ehlig C.F., R.D. Lemert, 1976 - Water use and productivity of wheat under five irrigation treatments. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J 40: 750-755
M. Rahimi Azar, A. Javanmard, F. Shekari, A. Pourmohammad and E. Esfandyari
pants grown with exogenous phosphorus in different cropping system. Aus. J.Exp. Agric. 47: 583-589.
Sharma R.K., Bangar K.S., Sharma S.R., Gwal H.B., Verma I.D., 1993 - Studies on intercropping of pulses in spring planted sugarcane. Indian Journal of Pulses Research 6(2), 161-164.
Singh D.K., Yadav D.S., 1992 - Production potential and economics of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) -based intercropping systems under rainfed condition. Indian Journal of Agronomy 37(3), 424-429.
Singh R., Joshi B.S., Singh S., 1982 - Correlation
Caroline Ireti Ayo-Olalusi and Adedolapo Abeke Ayoade
The length-weight relationship and condition factor of Sphyraena afra from the Lagos coast (LC) and the Lagos lagoon complex (LLC) in the coastal waters of Lagos State were studied for a period of two years. Parameters a and b of the length-weight relationship were estimated using the equation W = a x TLb, while the condition factor was calculated with the equation K = 100 x BW x TL-3. The relationships of fish condition factor and body length, sex, and seasons in Lagos coastal waters were determined. The species exhibited negative allometric growth (b < 3, P < 0.05) for males, females, and combined sexes with the length exponent (b) ranging from 2.72 to 2.85. Correlation coefficient r ranged from 0.89 to 0.98. The allometric growth values obtained in LC and LLC from the length-weight relationship indicated that the fish species exhibited increases in length rather than in weight. The overall mean condition factors (K) for S. afra from the LC and the LLC were 0.97 ± 0.11 and 1.17 ± 0.12, respectively. The mean condition factors of females were higher than those for males at most of the sampling stations, and S. afra was observed to be in better condition during the dry season.
Remarks on Correlations and Implications of the Mandibular Structure and Diet in Some Seals (Mammalia, Phocidae). Koretsky, I. A., Rahmat, S. J., Peters, N. — The diverse representatives of Recent seals within the three extant subfamilies (Cystophorinae, Phocinae, Monachinae) of the family Phocidae exhibit dietary variations among species, feeding on invertebrates and a diversity of prey depending on the season and availability. To explain this variability, an introductory morphological examination of the mandibular structure of Recent seals from each subfamily was performed, focusing on: heights of the mandibular ramus and condyloid process; measurements of the masseteric fossa; and attachments of muscles of mastication. After measuring the condyloid angles (the inclination of the condyloid process in relation to the axis of the alveolar row) among the examined species, a correlation between the size ofthe angle, function, and diet was recognized. Seals with a tall mandibular ramus and greater condyloid angle (Cystophorinae) feed on larger-sized prey, while seals with a shorter ramus and lesser condyloid angle feed on small (Monachinae) to medium-sized (Phocinae) prey, regardless of the overall size of the seal. This study focused on the mandibular morphology of some living and fossil representatives of Phocidae, providing an association between functional and ecological interpretations of modern seals in general and extrapolating this knowledge for fossil dietary preference.
We studied 8 skull and 42 dental characters in nine Myotis species (M. myotis, M. blythii, M. bechsteinii, M. dasycneme, M. emarginatus, M. nattereri, M. daubentonii, M. brandtii, M. mystacinus) to analyze correlations between hardness of food and skull and dental traits. Contrary to the common bat pattern, Myotis that are specialized on hard-shelled dietary items tend to have relatively narrow skull and long tooth rows. The dentition of durophagous Myotis is composed by relatively enlarged second and reduced third molars.
Ejaz Ul-Hasan, H.S.B. Mustafa, Tahira Bibi and T. Mahmood
Ali N., F. Javidfar, A.A. Attary, 2002 - Genetic variability, correlation and path analysis of yield and its components in winter rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). Pak. J. Bot., 34:145-150.
Anonymous, 2012 - Economic survey of Pakistan. 2011-‘12. Ministry of Finance, Government of Pakistan, pp. 23.
Basalma D., 2011 - The correlation and Path analysis of yield and yield components of different winter rapeseed (Brassica napus ssp. oleifera L.) cultivars. Res. J. Agric. Biological Sci., 4(2): 120
Effect of Temperature on Adhesion of Clay Soil to Steel
Soil adhesion is one of the important factors in measuring the amount of energy consumption. In this paper, the effect of temperature on the amount of clay soil adhesion was investigated. The soil used in this research was saturated clay mud. In order to measure adhesion, a specific instrument was designed. The dimensions of the metal plate were 210x70x20 mm and its weight was 2.5 kgf. The metal plate alloy was st37. The adhesion was calculated from the difference between weight of water used for clearing the metal plate of the soil and the weight of the metal plate. Six levels of temperature from 5 to 30°c were applied. A refrigerator and an oven were used for getting the required temperature. The test was performed three times for each level. Results showed that an increase in temperature from 5 to 30°c decreases the soil adhesion. Three equations such as linear polynomial, exponential and quadratic polynomial correlated with the experimental data and the result showed that the quadratic polynomial model had the best correlation with experimental data.
Damiana Michalonek, Wojciech Busse and Przemysław Busse
Seasonal migration pattern of owls at Bukowo-Kopań station (N Poland) in 2000-2003
Data were collected at the Operation Baltic stations and included over 2000 owls caught and ringed at Bukowo-Kopań station in autumns 2000-2003. Birds were caught with raptor nets, ringed and measured according to the Operation Baltic standards.
The Long-eared Owl (Asio otus) is the most numerous migrant at Polish coast of the Baltic Sea. Migration of this species has wave-like pattern with few nights of very high owl numbers after nights without these birds. Amount of migrants changes decidedly from year to year. This is a result of fluctuations associated with small mammal populations dynamics. Other owl species pass Bukowo-Kopań station in rather low numbers. We can distinguish two groups of owl species according to terms of passage peaks. Both the Short-eared Owl (Asio flammeus) and the Barn Owl (Tyto alba) migrate in the highest numbers generally at the same time as the Long-eared Owl, i.e. at the beginning of November. Correlation is in most cases statistically significant. On the contrary, the migration pattern of the Tengmalm's Owl (Aegolius funereus) is conspicuously different. Passage maximum of this species occurs at the beginning of October and by 25 October the passage is almost finished. But even then individuals that migrate later are caught during the same migration peaks as the Long-eared Owl.
Obtained results indicate that the passage of different owls is similar to the most numerous and typical migrant species - the Long-eared Owl. Other species choose the same nights for passage, which suggests that some common factors influencing owl migration exist.
Aytac Z., Kınacı, G., Kınacı E., 2008 - Genetic variation, heritability and path analysis of summer rapeseed cultivars, J. Appl. Biol. Sci., 2(3): 35-39.
Aytaç Z., Kınacı, G. 2009 - Genetic variability and association studies of some quantitative characters in winter rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). Afr. J. Biotechnol., 8 (15): 3547-3554.
Basalma D., 2008 - The correlation and path analysis of yield and yield components of different winter rapeseed (Brassica napus ssp. oleifera L.) cultivars. Res. J