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 Dall’Osto M, Querol X, Amato F, Karanasiou A, Lucarelli F, Nava S et al. Hourly elemental concentrations in PM2.5 aerosols sampled simultaneously at urban background and road site. Atm Chem Phys. 2012;12(8):20135-20180. DOI: 10.5194/acpd-12-20135-2012.
 Nickel S, Schröder W, Schmalfuss R, Saathoff M. Modelling spatial patterns of correlations between concentrations of heavy metals in mosses and atmospheric deposition in 2010 across Europe. Environ Sci Eur. 2018;30(1):53. DOI: 10.1186/s12302-018-0183-8.
Lokman Hakan Tecer, Sermin Tagil, Osman Ulukaya and Merve Ficici
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 Monod A, Sive BC, Avino P, Chen T, Blake DB, Rowland FS. Monoaromatic compounds in ambient air of various cities: a focus on correlations between
China is the largest swine production country in the world. The fast development has consequently
brought various environmental issues which have already seriously threatened the environmental quality. This
study is aimed to measure the concentrations of NH3 in the pig houses in the selected pig farm, try to conclude
characteristics on the concentration change and the correlation between the concentrations and the environmental
factors. The NH3 concentration was monitored in two fattening pig houses. The concentrations fluctuated between
11.0 and 26.9 ppm, 11.0 and 28.5 ppm respectively during the measurement periods, peaking at the early morning
and in the afternoon before cleaning. The concentrations of NH3 correlated to the indoor temperature in winter,
whereas, there was no correlation between relative humidity and NH3 concentrations.
Justyna Rybak, Izabela Spówka, Anna Zwoździak, Magdalena Fortuna and Krystyna Trzepla-Nabagło
The study aims at evaluating whether webs reflect the level of air pollution measured with conventional methods. Webs of species Malthonica silvestris (l. KOCH, 1872) (Araneae: Agelenidae) were sampled. Samples were analyzed for heavy metals (Pb, Zn) content. According webs analyses and classic measurements three traffic-oriented sites in Wroclaw (South-West Poland) showed significantly higher mean concentrations of heavy metals than two other sites situated in quieter, low traffic areas. A very strong significant positive correlation was revealed among average concentrations of Zn and Pb associated with fine particulate matter of atmospheric aerosol (PM1) and webs. We also observed a very strong significant positive correlation among Zn and Pb concentrations on webs and PM2.5. Any significant correlation among PM-emission fractions 2.5 and 10 and associated heavy metals and dust deposited on spider webs was not observed. Although spider webs proved useful indicators of environmental pollution the obtained results suggest that this tool should be used to evaluate the emission of heavy metals in the similar way as other bioindicators such as mosses and lichens are commonly used. The measured concentrations on webs do not reflect results obtained with classic methods. We conclude that spider webs are good for bioindication of road traffic emissions, they could be even more reliable compared to use of some other bioindicators whose activity is often limited by the lack of water and sun.
Effective diffusion coefficients for different heavy-metal salts: Cu, Cd, Zn, Cr, Pb in calcium alginate beads were determined. Their values depended on the metal type, anion from the metal salt, and the alginate content in the beads. The results of calculations indicate a decrease in the values of De, caused by an increase in the alginate content in the alginate sorbent beads. This is in agreement with the mechanism of the diffusion process taking place in porous carriers. Experimental data were found to be in good agreement with the mathematical model, as indicated by high values of the correlation coefficient.
This study investigated the possibility of using artificial neural networks to predict changes in the concentration of chloride ions in the urban ponds on the example of the inflow and outflow zones of water to and from the ponds Syrenie Stawy in Szczecin (NW-Poland). The possibility of using selected water quality indices (selected based on correlation matrix of water quality indices with Cl−), in particular: COD-Cr, BOD5, DO, water saturation by O2 and NO2− and their influence on the chloride concentration forecast was tested.
Diana Larisa Vlădoiu, Marioara Nicoleta Filimon, Vasile Ostafe and Adriana Isvoran
A molecular docking study was undertaken using the programs SwissDock and PatchDock to assess the interactions of the bacterial chitinases belonging to the GH18 and GH19 families with two herbicides (chlorsulfuron and nicosulfuron) and two fungicides (difenoconazole and drazoxolon). Both molecular docking programs predict that all considered pesticides bind to the active sites of chitinases produced by soil microorganisms. There are correlations for predicted binding energy values for receptor-ligand complexes obtained using the two programs consolidating the prediction of the chitinases-pesticides interactions. The interactions of chitinases with pesticides involve the same residues as their interactions with known inhibitors suggesting the inhibitory potential of pesticides. Pesticides interact stronger with chitinases belonging to the GH18 family, their active sites reflecting higher polarity than those of the GH19 chitinases. Also, herbicides reveal a higher inhibitory potential to bacterial chitinases than fungicides.
Agata Karło, Aleksandra Ziembińska-Buczyńska, Maciej Pilarczyk and Joanna Surmacz-Górska
Eutrophication process is a serious problem in water ecosystems. There is a great need to study the relation between the physico-chemical condition of water and the influence of these parameters on the diversity of biological life, especially on changes in the structure of microbiocenoses. The most interesting are bacteria and microalgae, due to the important roles they play in maintaining the balance of the aquatic environment. In this study, biodiversity analysis of eukaryotic microalgae and bacteria in two artificial water ecosystems - fish farming ponds - was performed. Aquaculture was based on IMTA technology, in which every part of the trophic chain plays a significant role in maintaining the balance in the ecosystems. Experimental intensive - extensive systems differed in terms of nutrient loads, ponds were characterized by high loads of organic and inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus. During the experimental period, the physicochemical conditions, quantitative genotypic structure of the two biocenoses being studied and the relation between these factors were monitored and investigated. For the biodiversity analysis, the PCR - DGGE technique was used. The results of preliminary research showed that there is a correlation between nutrient loads, diversity expressed in the Shannon-Wiener Index and the overall condition of experimental systems. Higher loadings of nutrient promote the development of bacteria and microalgae without any influence on the balance in the artificial ecosystem being tested.
Agnieszka Rombel-Bryzek, Małgorzata Rajfur and Olga Zhuk
Normal oxygen metabolism is an endogenous source of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The source of ROS are also many environmental factors including heavy metals. In certain concentration range, the presence of ROS is necessary to maintain proper cell function. Thus, cells have many mechanisms, which role is focused on maintaining a constant concentration of ROS. Imbalance between the formation of ROS and action of a protective antioxidant system leads to oxidative stress. This may results with a damage to the structure of proteins, lipids and nucleic acids, which in turn can lead to disturbances in the functioning of the cell and even to the death. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of copper ions on the metabolic activity of garden cress Lepidium sativum L. The action of copper ions with different concentrations was treated seeds. After four, six and eight days after planting in the leaves of garden cress were determined the specific activity of guaiacol peroxidase (GPOX), lipid peroxidation and protein content. Additionally intake of copper ions was determined using adsorption spectrometry technique. The results revealed that the applied doses of copper ions affected the activity of guaiacol peroxidase. The highest enzyme activity was found in plant material, which was treated with dose of copper ions 1000 mg/dm3 regardless of day. In the same samples the lowest level of lipid peroxidation was found. The highest concentrations of total proteins was found in samples treated with the highest dose of copper ions. The copper content in the tested plant material is correlated with the applied dose of copper ions. Our results indicate reliable correlations between copper content and values of oxidative stress biomarkers in plant tissues.
Anna Szczucińska, Maciej Dłużewski, Rafał Kozłowski and Przemysław Niedzielski
In arid areas, with rivers functioning episodically, alluvial resources are the main source of water. Considering the intensified regulation of discharge in montane catchments, supplying the intermittent rivers, in the nearest future alluvial aquifers will gain key importance for the functioning of people in arid zones. The research aimed to investigate the diversified chemistry of alluvial waters typical of large intermittent river valleys in hot arid zones as well as to analyse processes determining the water chemistry and affecting its diversity. The detailed study, carried out in October 2015, covered the Draa river valley (1100 km total length) in the region of the Mhamid Oasis. The examined water was sampled from all wells found in the study area. Concentrations of the main cations: Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Na+, NH4+, and Li+, anions: Cl−, SO42−, HCO3−, and NO3−, as well as trace elements: Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, and Zn, were identified. Results were analysed with statistical, hydrochemical, and geochemical modelling methods. Alluvial waters of the eastern and western part of the oasis differed in concentrations of numerous components, what resulted from the regulation of irrigation. Specific electrical conductivity showed a 3.5-fold increase, from 3800 to 13800 μS/cm, consistent with the direction of water flow in the oasis, from east to west. Even a greater rise was observed for ions: Cl− (6x), Na+ (5.5x), Mg2+ (5.0x), Ca2+, and SO42− (3.5x). Such a composition indicated multiionic hydrochemical type of waters dominated by Na+ and Cl−. Additionally, high Pearson correlation coefficients were recorded for Na+ and Cl− (0.98) as well as Mg2+ and Cl− (0.97). The saturation index suggested that the main water components originated from dissolving of minerals such as halite, anhydrite, sylvite, and gypsum. Groundwater chemistry in the Mhamid Oasis was determined mainly by geogenic processes, such as dissolving of evaporates, precipitation of carbonate minerals, and ion exchange.