. Ultrafine particles near a major roadway in Raleigh, North Carolina: Downwind attenuation and correlation with traffic-related pollutants. Atmosph Environ. 2009;43:1229-34. DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2008.11.024.
 Bernhardt-Römermann M, Kirchner M, Kudernatsch T, Jakobi G, Fischer A. Changed vegetation composition in coniferous forests near to motorways in Southern Germany: the effects of traffic-born pollution. Environ Pollut. 2006;143:572-81. DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2005.10.046.
 Markert BA, Breure AM, Zechmeister HG. Bioindicators and Biomonitors
Shear stress is one of the most critical parameters in hydraulic and coastal engineering, which is often measured indirectly. Since there is no instrument to measure this parameter directly and given that it is usually calculated by measuring other parameters such as velocity and pressure and using some equations, shear stress measurement is often accompanied with large measurement errors. In this study, a new technique and direct measurement using physical modeling in a hydraulic knife-edge flume and load cell were employed to measure the shear stress in a rectangular channel with rigid unsubmerged vegetation with Dv= 20, 25, and 32mm in
Q=25 and 30 Lit/S and y=10, 12, 17, and 20 cm. The results indicate that the shear stress and the dimensionless ratio decrease in a constant flow discharge with increasing the flow depth. It was also shown that the shear stress would be enhanced with an increase
in vegetation diameter due to increasing vegetation density against flow. According to dimensionless ratios of and in the graphs and considering the trend lines with appropriate correlation coefficients, some equations were presented to calculate the shear stress in the concerned range.
The Riva River is a water basin located within the borders of Istanbul in the Marmara Region (Turkey) in the south-north direction. Water samples were taken for the 35 km drainage area of the Riva River Basin before the river flows into the Black Sea at 4 stations on the Riva River every month and analyses were carried out. Changes were observed in the quality of water from upstream to downstream. For this purpose, the spatial and temporal variations of water quality were investigated using 13 water quality variables with the ANOVA test. It was observed that COD, DO, S and BOD were important in determining the spatial variation. On the other hand, it was found out that all the variables were effective in determining the temporal variation. Moreover, the correlation analysis which was carried out in order to assess the relations between water quality variables showed that the variables of BOD-COD, BOD-EC, COD-EC, BOD-T and COD-T were correlated and the regression analysis showed that COD, TKN and NH4-N explained BOD and BOD, NH4-N, T and TSS explained COD by approximately 80 %. Consequently, the Artificial Neural Network (ANN), Decision Tree and Logistic Regression models were developed using the data of training set in order to predict the water quality classes of the variables of COD, BOD and NH4-N. Quality classes were predicted for the variables by inputting the data of testing set into the developed models. According to these results, it was seen that the ANN was the best prediction model for COD, the Decision Tree for BOD and the ANN and Decision Tree for NH4-N.
;408(20):4569-4579. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2010.06.016.
 Dall’Osto M, Querol X, Amato F, Karanasiou A, Lucarelli F, Nava S et al. Hourly elemental concentrations in PM2.5 aerosols sampled simultaneously at urban background and road site. Atm Chem Phys. 2012;12(8):20135-20180. DOI: 10.5194/acpd-12-20135-2012.
 Nickel S, Schröder W, Schmalfuss R, Saathoff M. Modelling spatial patterns of correlations between concentrations of heavy metals in mosses and atmospheric deposition in 2010 across Europe. Environ Sci Eur. 2018;30(1):53. DOI: 10.1186/s12302-018-0183-8.
. 2011;61(12):1361-8. DOI: 10.1080/10473289.2011.623636.
 Zhou X, Zhang Q. Measurement of odour and hydrogen sulfide emissions from swine barns. Canad Biosystems Eng. 2003;45:6.13-6.18. http://csbe-scgab.ca/docs/journal/45/c0218.pdf .
 Guo H, Dehod W, Agnew J, Feddes JR, Laguë C, Pang S. Daytime odor emission variations from various swine barns. Trans ASABE. 2007;50:1365-72. DOI: 10.13031/2013.23625.
 Choi HL, Kim KY, Kim H. Correlation of air pollutants and thermal environment factors in a confined pig house in winter. Asian
Lokman Hakan Tecer, Sermin Tagil, Osman Ulukaya and Merve Ficici
, Hlavay J. Toluene-benzene concentration ratio as a tool for characterizing the distance from vehicular emission sources. Environ Sci Technol. 1997;31:2869-2872. DOI: 10.1021/es970004c.
 Liu PWG, Yao YC, Tsai JH, Hsu YC, Chang LP, Chang KH. Source impacts by volatile organic compounds in an industrial city of southern Taiwan. Sci Total Environ. 2008;398(13):154-163. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2008.02.053.
 Monod A, Sive BC, Avino P, Chen T, Blake DB, Rowland FS. Monoaromatic compounds in ambient air of various cities: a focus on correlations between
China is the largest swine production country in the world. The fast development has consequently
brought various environmental issues which have already seriously threatened the environmental quality. This
study is aimed to measure the concentrations of NH3 in the pig houses in the selected pig farm, try to conclude
characteristics on the concentration change and the correlation between the concentrations and the environmental
factors. The NH3 concentration was monitored in two fattening pig houses. The concentrations fluctuated between
11.0 and 26.9 ppm, 11.0 and 28.5 ppm respectively during the measurement periods, peaking at the early morning
and in the afternoon before cleaning. The concentrations of NH3 correlated to the indoor temperature in winter,
whereas, there was no correlation between relative humidity and NH3 concentrations.
Justyna Rybak, Izabela Spówka, Anna Zwoździak, Magdalena Fortuna and Krystyna Trzepla-Nabagło
The study aims at evaluating whether webs reflect the level of air pollution measured with conventional methods. Webs of species Malthonica silvestris (l. KOCH, 1872) (Araneae: Agelenidae) were sampled. Samples were analyzed for heavy metals (Pb, Zn) content. According webs analyses and classic measurements three traffic-oriented sites in Wroclaw (South-West Poland) showed significantly higher mean concentrations of heavy metals than two other sites situated in quieter, low traffic areas. A very strong significant positive correlation was revealed among average concentrations of Zn and Pb associated with fine particulate matter of atmospheric aerosol (PM1) and webs. We also observed a very strong significant positive correlation among Zn and Pb concentrations on webs and PM2.5. Any significant correlation among PM-emission fractions 2.5 and 10 and associated heavy metals and dust deposited on spider webs was not observed. Although spider webs proved useful indicators of environmental pollution the obtained results suggest that this tool should be used to evaluate the emission of heavy metals in the similar way as other bioindicators such as mosses and lichens are commonly used. The measured concentrations on webs do not reflect results obtained with classic methods. We conclude that spider webs are good for bioindication of road traffic emissions, they could be even more reliable compared to use of some other bioindicators whose activity is often limited by the lack of water and sun.
This study investigated the possibility of using artificial neural networks to predict changes in the concentration of chloride ions in the urban ponds on the example of the inflow and outflow zones of water to and from the ponds Syrenie Stawy in Szczecin (NW-Poland). The possibility of using selected water quality indices (selected based on correlation matrix of water quality indices with Cl−), in particular: COD-Cr, BOD5, DO, water saturation by O2 and NO2− and their influence on the chloride concentration forecast was tested.