Asaduzzaman Khan, Riaz Uddin, Naznin Alam, Shuhana Sultana, Mahbub-Ul Alam and Rushdiá Ahmed
limits of agreement (LOA) was used to examine the magnitude of systematic differences, with a narrower interval indicating a higher stability ( Bland and Altman, 1999 ). The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) with two-way mixed effects model was used to estimate the test-retest reliability coefficient of the Bangla K6. In examining test-retest reliability, while the Pearson correlation coefficient can be used to measure of the correlation of measurements, and paired t -test can be used to measure agreement; none of them measures both correlation and agreement
correlation with their gender and field of study. Int J Dent 2013;2013:647436. 23573092
Sghaireen MG Zwiri AMA Alzoubi IA Qodcieh SM Al-Omiri MK Anxiety due to dental treatment and procedures among university students and its correlation with their gender and field of study Int J Dent 2013 2013 647436
Skaret E, Raadal M, Berg E, Kvale G. Dental anxiety and dental avoidance among 12-18-year olds in Norway. Eur J Oral Sci 1999;107:422-8. 10.1046/j.0909-8836.1999.eos107602.x
Skaret E Raadal M Berg E Kvale G Dental anxiety and
Inventory (EDI). Further, that the “drive for thinness” subscale of the EDI has a relatively high correlation with the “dieting” subscale of the EAT 26, a key factor in the development of eating disorders as will be discussed later. However, the latter finding by Szabo and Hollands (1997a) of similarity in profile between race groups where abnormal eating attitudes were documented was congruent with the earlier clinical findings reported by Szabo, Berk, Tlou & Allwood (1995) i.e. race did not appear to impact on clinical presentation. This sentiment was further
Introduction: In the 21st century there is an increased prevalence of depression in the world. So far the mechanism of developing depression has not been exactly known. Risk factors of depression occurrence are complex and nowadays it has been emphasized that air pollution can affect the intensity of depressive symptoms.
Objective: The analysis of the scientific works investigating the correlations between air pollution and depression.
Material and method: The material consisted of the studies published between 2007 and 2017. A systematic review of Medline database (using PubMed search engine) was conducted by typing the English phrase (air pollution) and (depression), and 154 results were obtained. Those results which concerned nicotine addiction or dementia diseases were rejected. The inclusion criterion was the number of people tested, n>500 in case of adults, and n>200 in case of children (a small number of publications). All in all, 9 research in the population of adults and 1 research in the group of children were included to the final analysis. In the discussion part of this work some research carried out on animals and related to the subject matter of own analyses were also investigated.
Results: As many as 8 out of 10 analyzed research demonstrated statistically significant correlation between long-term exposure to air pollution (mainly to fine particulate matter, PM) and depression. This correlation mainly concerned intensification of depressive symptoms during long exposure to air pollution. The exposure also resulted in changes in the neuro-transfer of serotonin and as well in neurodegenerative changes in children exposed to long-term pollution with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in prenatal life. Testing on animals indicates that air pollution affects the activation of proinflammatory processes in hippocampus, what may incidentally contribute to the formation of depressive and cognitive symptoms.
Conclusions: In view of the increase of depression incidence and constantly sustained air pollution in the world, there is a need for further research on the correlation between air pollution and depression, taking into account the genetic, social and psychological factors.
Ewelina Soroka, Kamila Dziwota, Justyna Pawęzka and Marcin Olajossy
Does better insight associated with the process of recovery mean a stronger sense of mental illness stigma? This article presents the relationship between a multidimensional construct, which is the insight and the phenomena of stigma and self-stigma of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. It is well known that the term insight contains: a sense of illness, the patient's attitude to its symptoms, explanation of the causes of the illness, attitude to the rationale of treatment and awareness of the risk of relapse. On the other hand, self-stigma occurs when the patient internalizes and refers to himself/herselfnegative and stigmatizing social attitudes, conditioned by the presence of conventionalbeliefs, strengthened by the media, and this weakens the process of recovery.
How much does good insight strengthen the patient on the way to fuller social functioning, and how much does it imprint stigma of mental illness and weaken its positionin society? The authors of the paper are discussing the subject of insight and stigma from the patient's perspective, over the patient’s attitude towards the diagnosis of schizophrenia, the process of recovery and the aspect of hope - important in recovery. These study of construct insight shows that the relationship insight-recovery-stigma is a multi-dimensional plane, dependent on various factors, that needs constant deepening and complementing with further research.
Distribution of item characteristics and correlation analysis revealed item 25 from authoritative domain, item 31 and item 36 from authoritarian domain, and item 15 from permissive domain have different distribution from the other items of
that domain with poor correlation with other items ( Table 4 ). The score was calculated as per the response in 5-point Likert scale ranging from 1 to 5, and the mean was calculated based on that. So, items 15, 25, 31, and 36 were discarded based on the
The aim of the study was to establish depth and substantive characteristics of intrapersonal conflicts of bloggers. Internal conflicts were analyzed at the levels of individual typological characteristics, self-conception, and value orientation of personality.
The study was based on the method of content analysis and psychodiagnostic tests. 100 respondents (50 respondents who have blogs and 50 respondents who do not have blogs) were examined with Sobczyk’s individual typological questionnaire, Stephenson’s Q sorting, Budassi’s scale of self-assessment, Leary’s interpersonal diagnosis of personality, Fantalova’s value / accessibility correlation in different life spheres. Mann-Whitney test and Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient were applied for statistical data processing.
The results of the survey support the hypothesis regarding the special character of the intra-personal conflicts of bloggers in comparison with those people who do not have blogs and use the Internet less often. In fact, conflicts between real self and virtual self are characteristic of bloggers. Most of the tension is the result of contradiction of ideas about their personal social and communicative competence and the opposition of coping strategies “acceptance of struggle – avoidance of struggle”.
There are different views on how the Internet influences psychological wellbeing. Social networks allow bloggers to present themselves in a certain desired light, to create some image, to stress their unique features, to attract attention to those character properties which are not manifested in real life as desired.
Olga Nowacka, Henryk Welcz and Hanna Karakuła-Juchnowicz
The theory linking the development of mental disorders with the processes of human evolution assumes that these disorders may be the result of a side effect of natural and sexual selection processes. Creativity is one of the adaptive features associated with the increased incidence of psychopathological symptoms (as compared to the general population).
In this review paper, the definition of creativity has been characterized, and contemporary existing theories on its background, have been presented. Also, the paper describes the relationship between creativity and the presence of psychopathological symptoms. Special attention has been paid to the relationship between creativity and bipolar disorder.
The research results prove the existence of a correlation between a high level of creativity and a higher prevalence of psychopathological symptoms, particularly concerning the symptoms of bipolar disorder spectrum.
Bernarda Bereza, Justyna Morylowska-Topolska, Anna Urbańska, Diana Szymczuk and Hanna Karakuła-Juchnowicz
Aim. The aim of the study was looking for correlations between experiencing of various forms of harming in childhood and severity of personal trait of anxiety in victims of domestic violence.
Material and methods. The number of 112 people (49 women and 63 men) who were attending the mental health clinics in the area of Mazovian district were investigated. The sociodemographic questionnaire and Polish adaptation of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (by C.D. Spielberger) were used.
Results. High severity of anxiety as a trait, more often than low severity correlates with experiencing of violence (physical and mental) during childhood. Most often it is mental violence with father as perpetrator (p<0.01). People with the high level of anxiety as a trait have more often still been experiencing violence, living with their perpetrator and using violence towards other people (p<0.05).
Conclusions. Awareness of psychological consequences of using violence towards the youngest permit to hope for optimization of actions preventing spreading of such pathology (for example therapeutic work with learned helplessness and copying of destructive family patterns).