Nikola M. Stojanović, Pavle J. Randjelović and Niko S. Radulović
The open field test is being used extensively for the determination of different aspects of animal behaviour for over seventy years. The correlation between different behavioural parameters obtained in this test, although previously studied, is still debatable. Thus, we aimed to analyze and correlate behaviour scores to estimate the importance of individual parameters in this type of experiment. The open field test was performed on male BALB/c mice treated with either saline (10 ml/kg) or diazepam (2 mg/kg), one hour before the experiment. The behaviour scores (number of squares crossed and rearings performed) obtained either by video recording or direct observation, during a five-minute experiment, were compared using a t-test and were tested for correlation. As expected, diazepam caused an increase in the number of squares crossed and rearings performed by the animals. The number of rearings was statistically different between the groups monitored in two different ways. The correlations between the behaviour scores obtained in the two modes of monitoring for all groups were moderate/strong positive ones. The correlation analyses revealed that the amount of information conveyed by a single behaviour parameter, either the number of squares crossed or the number of rearings, could be sufficient to estimate the animals’ motor activity in the open field test. Also, the results of this test could provide clues to very important piece of information in drug discovery, i.e. the general animal behaviour under the influence of CNS acting drugs in an experiment.
Daniela Y. Arabadzhieva, Ara G. Kaprelyan, Zdravko D. Slavov, Zhaneta T. Georgieva and Aleksandra Zh. Tsukeva
The objective of this study was to analyze the association between some cardiovascular diseases and acute ischemic stroke. A total of 258 acute ischemic stroke patients (mean age 70.59±7.22 years) were examined. The presence of eight cardiovascular diseases and pathological conditions was analyzed: arterial hypertension, hypertensive heart, atrial fibrillation, myocardial infarction, ischemic heart disease, effort angina pectoris, coronary atherosclerosis, and heart failure. Data were statistically processed by variation and correlation analysis. Most male and female patients presented with four accompanying cardiovascular diseases (27 or 20.93% and 31 or 24.03% of the cases, respectively). There were two groups of four variables each - with a relatively strong and a moderate, as well as with a weak correlation (r<0.4), to the presence of acute ischemic stroke in the corresponding patients. Ischemic heart disease was strongly associated with effort angina pectoris (r=0.667) and to a lesser extent - with coronary atherosclerosis (r=0.470), whereas myocardial infarction was associated with coronary atherosclerosis (r=0.604) and ischemic heart disease (r=0.378), respectively. Arterial hypertension was moderately related to hypertensive heart (r=0.300). In conclusion, there were relatively close associations between acute ischemic stroke and these heart diseases. These patients should strictly and regularly be followed up by general practitioners.
Benjamin David Rapphold, Petra Metzenthin, Marc Oertle and Kaspar Küng
; Kohn et al., 2000 ). Data from 12 European countries and the United States showed that nurses in hospitals with higher patient-to-nurse ratios had higher workloads, but the correlation to MAEs was not clear ( Aiken et al., 2012 ). As nurses are the last link in the medication process, the occurrence of MAEs needs to be investigated from the nurses’ point of view ( Keers, Williams, Cooke & Ashcroft, 2013a ).
In Switzerland, up to 7.5% of patients experience at least one adverse drug event during their hospital stay ( Hardmeier et al., 2004 ). Currently no data on
Vesna Grbovic, Aleksandra Jurisic Skevin, Katarina Parezanovic Ilic, Aleksandra Lucic Tomic, Jasmin Nurkovic, Dejan Jeremic and Dusica Djordjevic
of life in postmenopausal women. Rheumatol Int 2012; 32(4): 971-80.
39. Guillemin F, Martinez L, Calvert M, Cooper C, Ganiats T, Gitlin M, et al. Fear of falling, fracture history, and comorbidities are associated with health-related quality of life among European and US women with osteoporosis in a large international study. Osteoporos Int 2013; 24(12): 3001-10.
40. de Oliveira Ferreira N, Arthuso M, da Silva R, Pedro AO, Neto AMP, Costa-Paiva L. Quality of life in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis: correlation between QUALEFFO
Data from different studies correlating the serum 25(OH)D levels with the metabolic and glycemic parameters in type 2 diabetes patients are still varying. The objective if this study was to describe the correlation between serum 25(OH)D levels and some metabolic parameters in Bulgarian type 2 diabetes patients on oral antidiabetic drugs. One hundred type 2 diabetes patients participated - 56 men and 44 women. The mean age and diabetes duration of the women was 59.0 and 9.8 years, of the men - 58.0 and 7.7 years respectively. Complete patient history was taken and physical examination was performed (body weight and height, waist circumference). Body composition was measured on a leg-to-leg body impedance analyzer (TBF-215, Tanita Corp., Tokyo, Japan). Serum levels of vitamin D were measured by electro-hemi-luminescent detection as 25-(ОН) D Total (ECLIA, Elecsys 2010, Roche Diagnostics, Switzerland). Glycated hemoglobin A1c was measured on a NycoCard reader (Alere™). Total, HDL-cholesterol (direct) and triglycerides were analyzed on a Cobas Integra 400+ analyzer. Correlation analysis was performed on a SPSS 13.0 for Windows platform and included 10 curves. The data were first analyzed for the group as a whole and then separately for men and women as well as in the different vitamin D tertiles. The mean serum 25-OH-vitamin D levels were 23.8 ± 12.1 nmol/l in women and 33.3 ± 20.0 nmol/l in men. We were unable to find any statistically significant correlation between serum 25(OH) vitaminand the serum lipids (cholesterol profile and triglycerides). On the contrary, there was a weak correlation with the glycated hemoglobin A1c (cubic model, R2 = 0.178, p = 0.05) and the BMI (inverse model, R2 = 0.101, p = 0.038). The sub-analyses (men versus women or according to tertiles of vitamin D) did not produce any additional information. The influence of vitamin D on the parameters of the metabolic control in type 2 diabetes is very weak on an individual level. It might be only demonstrated in large epidemiological surveys.
Marina Stolic, Dragan Stolic, Darko Hinic and Dragana Ignjatovic-Ristic
10. Honigman, R.J., Jackson, A.C. & Dowling, N.A. (2011). The PreFACE: A Preoperative Psychosocial Screen for Elective Facial Cosmetic Surgery and Cosmetic Dentistry Patients. Annals of Plastic Surgery, 66 (1), 16-23. DOI: 10.1097/SAP.0b013e3181d50e54
11. Hodgkinson, D.J. (2005). Identifying the Body-Dismorphic Patient in Aesthetic Surgery. Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, 29 (6), 503-509. DOI: 10.1007/s00266-005-5033-6
12. Markey, C.N. & Markey, P.M. (2010). A correlational and experimental examination of reality television viewing and
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3. Koleva M, Nacheva A, Boev M. Somatotype and disease prevalence in adults. Rev Environ Health 2002;17(1):65-84.
4. Koleva M, Nacheva A, Boev M. Somatotype, nutrition, and obesity. Rev Environ Health 2000; 15(4): 389-98.
5. Baltadjiev A, Tineshev S. Correlations between the biepicondylar breadth of the femur and body height and
Introduction: This paper undertakes to investigate the connection between two approaches to scoring translation by examining 115 test papers of the translation component of the C1 level PROFEX English for Medical Purposes (EMP) exam. The main objective of the study is to reveal whether, and to what extent, the method of assessment influences the score.
Material and method: The test papers were scored independently by two experienced raters according to the marking scale of the PROFEX EMP exam, then holistic scoring was carried out by a third rater, who was uninformed of the official scores for the test papers. Correlations were calculated, first between the holistic scores and the official scores based on the combined holistic and discrete point approach, then between other components of the written part of PROFEX EMP exam (reading comprehension and writing) and the holistic scores and the scores reached with the combined method, respectively.
Results: A strong correlation has been revealed between the scores achieved by the purely holistic method and those assessed with the combined holistic and discrete point approach. The holistic method was shown to be slightly more reliable than the combined approach.
Conclusion: The study has revealed that the method of assessment does not significantly influence the score in the evaluation of translation in the PROFEX EMP exam.
end product formation: a new explanation on pathogenesis for complication in poorly controlled diabetic patient. Adv Lab Med Int 2011; 1: 6-10.
Rosediani M, Azidah AK, Mafauzy M. Correlation between fasting plasma glucose, post prandial glucose and glycated haemoglobin and fructosamine. Med J Malaysia 2006; 61: 67-71. PMid:16708736
Bouma M, Dekker JH, de Sonnaville JJ, van der Does FE, de Vries H, Kriegsman DM, Kostense PJ, Heine RJ, van Eijk JT. How valid is fasting plasma glucose as a parameter of glycemic