Starting with the Transitivity Requirement hypothesis [the direct object counterpart of Extended Projection P rinciple (EPP)], we examine the development of cognate objects and cognate subjects in English. We show that English extended the range of both cognate objects - which are now also possible with activity/event nouns - and cognate subjects - cognate subjects became an option for impersonal verbs. However, we argue that a correlation between the development of cognate arguments and the changes in null arguments should be excluded, whereas the development of the cognate arguments appears to be related to aspectual changes.
At present there are many odd hypotheses about the genetic affiliation of certain languages. Most such hypotheses are invented without any serious examination of the structural differences between the languages being compared. The PAI method was inspired by ideas of A. P. Volodin, who noticed that there were two types of languages, one type has prefixation and the other does not. Actually, there is no sharp divide between the two types, it is more precise to use a coefficient (i.e. PAI) rather than simply ask “does a language allow prefixation?” The PAI theory supposed there was correlation between values of PAI of genetically related languages. Tests of PAI on the material of well assembled stocks prove that such correlations exist. Being applied to Ainu and to languages that are possibly supposed to be related to it. The PAI shows that Ainu that is not related to either Altaic or Nivkh, while a search for relatives of Ainu to the south shows potential. Also PAI can be useful in the case of other unsettled questions of language affiliation in North America, New Guinea, Southeast Asia, Africa and other places.
Marcin Lewandowski. The Language of Online Sports Commentary in a Comparative Perspective. Lingua Posnaniensis, vol. L IV (1)/2012. The Poznań Society for the Advancement of the Arts and Sciences. PL ISSN 0079-4740, ISBN 978-83-7654-103-7, pp. 65-76.
This paper attempts to describe a relatively new media genre (or as the author prefers to see it, an electronic register), i.e., online sports commentary (OSC). The analysis concerns English-language online live soccer match reports, and is based on a methodological framework proposed by D. Biber and S. Conrad (2009), who in register studies emphasize the correlation between the situational characteristics and lexico-grammatical features of a particular language variety. The paper also aims to compare the register in question with other related varieties, i.e., written sports commentary (WSC) and sports announcer talk (SAT ) in order to corroborate the hypothesis that the register of online commentary is a hybrid of spoken and written language.
Nichols, Johanna & Warnow, Tandy. 2008. Tutorial on computational linguistic phylogeny. Language and Linguistics Compass 2(5). 760-820.
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This article analyzes the shift from emotion to affect in Caryl Churchill’s writing for the theatre, a process which becomes prominent in the later seventies and culminates in the production of A Mouthful of Birds, a project designed jointly with the choreographer David Lan. The effects of the transformation remain traceable in The Skriker, a complex play taking several years to complete. It is argued that there is a tangible and logical correlation between Churchill’s dismantling of the representational apparatus associated with the tradition of institutional theatre—a process which involves, primarily, a dissolution of its artificially constructed, docile bodies into orificial ones—and her withdrawal from the use of emotional expression in favour of the affective. In the following examination, emotions are conceived as interpretative acts modelled on cognition and mediated through representations while the intensity of affect remains unstructured. Often revealed through violence, pain and suffering, affect enables the theatre to venture into the pre-cognitive and thus beyond the tradition of liberal subject formation.
The article examines the correlation between the world and the word in two novels which engage with a post-apocalyptic scenario: David Markson’s Wittgenstein’s Mistress (1988) and Cormac McCarthy’s The Road (2006). Shifting the focus from the very event of catastrophe to the notion of survival through memory and storytelling, both novels problematize the strained relationship between language and reality in an increasingly diminished and dehumanized world. My aim is to investigate the limits of language as well as its capacity to withstand the chaos, loss, trauma, and death that follow the apocalypse. The issues to be considered include the influence of external experience on forms of communication, the role of central metaphors (the archive and the museum in Markson’s novel; cinders and the road in McCarthy’s) and their relation to the form of both novels, as well as the word’s (in)capacity to preserve human values and hopes. Both novels will be discussed as deconstructionist projects in which language becomes a habitat at once impossible and life-preserving: in Wittgenstein’s Mistress it plays the role of both home and prison, whereas in The Road it functions as messianic discourse which simultaneously carries, propels and extinguishes the human hope for a transcendental reality beyond the post-apocalyptic emptiness and doubt.
The impressive economic development of East Asian and Southeast Asian countries, like China, Japan, South Korea, or Singapore, is often described as the ‘Asian economic miracle’. The transition from a less developed economy to an industrialised country and successful integration into the global economy within a relatively short period of time are characteristics of the economic development process. Academic research is dominated by a general agreement on the causal relationship between economic development and international trade. The research goal of this paper is to analyse the impact of the level of economic development on the degree of international trade in the economies of China, Japan, South Korea, Singapore and Thailand. The applied research model does not follow the traditional research mainstream but rather introduces relative shares of GDP-related industrial output and of manufactures exports by adopting national as well as international perspectives instead. Descriptive trend analysis, correlation analysis and regression analysis are conducted in order to test the hypotheses. The results do not support conventional academic wisdom. A statistically reasonable causality between the level of economic development, in terms of relative industrial output, and the degree of international trade, in terms of relative industrial exports, could not be confirmed.