This investigation of the scope and types of aspectual pairs in Slovak is motivated by the lack of a thorough monograph on aspect in Slovak linguistics, by the lack of a uniform approach to the essential questions of aspect in existing Czech and Slovak studies, and by the differing treatments of aspectual correlations in major dictionaries.
In the introduction we discuss the nature of aspect as a categorial (word-class) component in the meaning of verbs. Aspect is the grammaticalization of the subcategorial semantic feature “manner of flow of an action in time” and is closely connected with a second subcategorial semantic feature - “manner of distribution of an action in space” which finds its expression in the lexico-grammatical category of intention.
In the first part of this study we present a concise overview of opinions concerning the nature of the category of aspect in regard to the formal means of its expression: the universal dimension of aspect is represented by aspectual opposition covering all verbs, and the paradigmatic dimension of aspect is represented by aspectual correlation, i.e., aspect pairs.
Here we touch on the problem of the consideration of aspect as a lexico-grammatical category or a purely morphological category and the problem of the place of prefixation in aspect formation (the acceptance or rejection of prefixation as a means of forming aspectual pairs).
In the second part of the study we focus attention on the analysis of criteria for dividing aspectual pairs, whereby these criteria generate five approaches: A. a formal criterion: imperfectivizing suffixation; B. categorial-semantic criteria (in conceptualizations that also allow prefixal aspect formation): 1) gradual transition (opraviť/opravovať [to repair perfective/imperfective], krotiť/skrotiť [to restrain imperfective/perfective]) as the core of the aspectual correlation, 2) + acceptance of causative semelfactives (bodať/bodnúť to pierce imperfective/perfective, kopať/kopnúť to kick imperfective/perfective) as a type of momentaneous transition, 3) + acceptance of quantitative discursives expressing an intrinsic portion of an atelic process (kašľať/zakašľať to cough imperfective/perfective, zvoniť/ zazvoniť to ring imperfective/perfective, triasť/zatriasť to shake imperfective/perfective), and 4) aspectual correlation as part of a system of several aspectually relevant oppositions, or derivationally perceived aspectual clusters.
The final part of the article is devoted to the question of the formal presentation of aspectual pairs. Here we analyze the problem of considering an aspectual pair as two forms of a single lexeme (the result of form modification, aspect formation) in contrast to considering the members of an aspectual pair as independent lexemes (the result of derivation).
In any migratory context individuals are faced with several challenges as a result of having to live in a different geographical location, function in a different cultural setting and use a different language. The migrants’ use of language plays a crucial role in mediation of their identity, especially in the domain of pronunciation (Kobialka 2016). When non-native users of language adapt their speech to resemble that of the host community, it may suggest their strong identification with the target community (Hammer and Dewaele 2015). This papers focuses on the pronunciation patterns among Polish adult migrants living in the west of Ireland. The aim of the study is to investigate the link between positive attitudes of the migrant community towards Ireland, Irish culture and community, their acculturation strategies and language identity, and the tendency to use one of the most characteristic features of Irish English – slit-t. The theoretical framework includes acculturation theory (Berry 2005), social identity theory (Tajfel and turner 1987) and language identity (Block 2007). The qualitative and quantitative analysis of data indicates a certain correlation between the use of Irish English slit-t and the participants’ strategies of acculturation, identity and attitudes to the host community.
Language skills provide preschoolers with the foundational skills needed to socially interact, but little is known about the relationship between specific language skills and broad constructs of social competence. Sixteen preschoolers between 3-5 years with varying language abilities were recruited. Descriptive and correlational analyses were conducted to examine the relationships between language and social competence. The main finding of this study showed that early literacy skills and word knowledge and retrieval were significantly correlated with Social Independence and Social Interaction respectively. These findings support the notion that the content of preschoolers’ conversations rather than the accuracy of their speech or syntax is associated with success in social interaction and social independence.
This paper investigates native and non-native speech rhythm in the speech of Polish learners of English at an intermediate/upper-intermediate level. More specifically, it attempts to explore the relationship between rhythm measures scores in L1 Polish and L2 English within individual speakers. Phonological vowel reduction in terms of duration is present in English and crucial for the perception and acoustic measurements of linguistic rhythm. Polish, on the other hand, has no phonological reduction of that kind. The acquisition of L2 vowel reduction is highly determined by the level of language proficiency and influences non-native rhythmic patterns. The study tests six speech rhythm measures: %V, ΔV, ΔC, VarcoV, VarcoC and nPVI-V in two tempos: normal and fast. The results show that most of these measures are positively and significantly correlated with each other between L1 Polish and L2 English across the subjects and for two tempos, although to a different degree. Highly significantly correlation has been noted for %V and ΔC in fast tempo. Moderate significant correlations between the two languages are observed for ΔV, ΔC (normal tempo), VarcoV and nPVI in fast tempo.
This paper focuses on the relations between conscious and subconscious aspects of English word stress acquisition. Using two tasks–reading and written word stress identification, we test metacompetence and production accuracy in the pronunciation of Polish learners, first year and third year English studies majors. The analysis of the collected data and correlations between the students’ metalinguistic knowledge and production accuracy, including error patterns and proportions, leads to conclusions concerning the significance of language awareness, learning experience and, indirectly, explicit didactic instruction for English word stress realization. Our results indicate that Polish learners tend to stress the word-initial syllable rather than the penult, typical of their native language. We have also observed a generally large, though smaller in more proficient learners, discrepancy between metacompetence and performance.
The aim of paper is to research language situation and language policy of Central Asia republics of ex-Soviet Union. First part is devoted to political, ethnical and national changes in ex-Soviet republics and to the conditions before and after 1989. Second part of the work is researching language situation in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, and Kirgizstan and is directed to mapping of aspects of derusification and revitalization of local languages. The third part of the work is focused on analyse of language situation and language policy in Tajikistan in the context of wider social and historical connections, it is also directed to research correlation and status of Russian and Tajik languages in respective areas of public life.
Tatiana Litvinova, Pavel Seredin, Olga Litvinova and Olga Zagorovskaya
Authorship profiling, i.e. revealing information about an unknown author by analyzing their text, is a task of growing importance. One of the most urgent problems of authorship profiling (AP) is selecting text parameters which may correlate to an author’s personality. Most researchers’ selection of these is not underpinned by any theory. This article proposes an approach to AP which applies neuroscience data. The aim of the study is to assess the probability of self-destructive behaviour of an individual via formal parameters of their texts. Here we have used the “Personality Corpus”, which consists of Russian-language texts. A set of correlations between scores on the Freiburg Personality Inventory scales that are known to be indicative of self-destructive behaviour (“Spontaneous Aggressiveness”, “Depressiveness”, “Emotional Lability”, and “Composedness”) and text variables (average sentence length, lexical diversity etc.) has been calculated. Further, a mathematical model which predicts the probability of self-destructive behaviour has been obtained.
The Development of Dialogue Competence in Children (Russian Data Corpus)
The debate regarding linguistic or communicative competence has not subsided since the publication of N. Chomsky's keynote works (Chomsky 1965; 1968). The structure of competence, its aspects, levels and components, and their content and correlation (with regard to both native and foreign language acquisition) are actively discussed in many diverse scientific fields and schools (Pinker, Jackendoff, 2005; Lehmann, 2007). The study suggests that conversational competence, as well as the linguistic-system competence, constitutes a relatively independent component of communicative competence. It also plays an important role in the development of communicative competence, as long as participation in a dialogue serves as a trigger for other types of linguistic competence.
This paper explores the following hypothesis. Although the language-system and dialogue components show traces of parallel development, their divergence may be observed at the early stages of speech ontogenesis. At this time the development of dialogue competence outstrips the development of other linguistic skills and is a catalyst for the formation of communicative competence generally. This study has two primary aims: to investigate some of the normal aspects of the acquisition of dialogue competence (based primarily on communicative failures), and to discover the conductive factors and basic prerequisites for the acquisition of dialogue skills.
The observations are based on the Russian language corpora, including longitudinal audio and video recordings and diary notes (Child Language Database of the Chair of Child Language1). The longitudinal method is the principal method employed in this investigation. Dialogue acquisition is analyzed regarding the extent to which the process relates to the functions of dialogue units initiated by questions.
Analysis of the dialogue skills of children at pre-verbal and early-verbal stages has shown that the communicative failures or breakdowns (just like the child's general mistakes) mark the development of communicative competence in a dialogue and the correlation of different components. Simultaneously developing specific strategies (those of partial understanding, participation and "the end of phrase") enable the child to participate or imitate participation in a dialogue whilst lacking cognitive and linguistic-system skills. The language behavior tactics of the mother are the leading factor in the development of the child's dialogue competence and these tactics, in many respects, are characterized by a specific use of questions2.
Focusing on the exploration of intra-disciplinary register variation in the pharmaceutical domain, this corpus-driven study attempts to describe the use, composition and discourse functions of phrase frames, that is, contiguous sequences of words identical except for one (Fletcher, 2002-2007), found in samples of four English pharmaceutical text types, such as patient information leaflets, summaries of product characteristics, clinical trial protocols and chapters/sections from academic textbooks on pharmacology. The study deals with a specific sub-type of phrase frames, that is, 4-word units with a variable slot in the medial position, e.g. be * with caution, to take * medicine. The results showed, among others, that the use and discourse functions of phrase frames vary across pharmaceutical text types, that the correlation between the frequency of phrase frames and their pattern variability may depend on a register or genre, and that it is justified to treat the discourse functions of phrase frames as distinct from those of their textual variants.
For decades now, we are talking about that in science in general, and in linguistics in particular a structuralist paradigm is naturally complemented with an anthropocentric paradigm – with its inherent attention to human cognitive structures. Following the question “how?” we more and more often ask the question “why?”. This is a logical way of development of human thought in the process of cognition of reality: first, based on the differential and integral signs, organize, and then wonder why the system looks exactly the way it looks, with its tendentiousness and illogicalities. The aim of the article is to study the correlation between lexical phenomena of metonymy and metaphor and cognitive structure of perception. This study is in line with a new scientific approach proposed by evolutionary epistemology: cognitive and evolutionary. This approach implies increased attention to human perception and logic in their evolution. Based on the information of anthroponimic sciences related to linguistics about degrees of perception and logics quality, this approach allows to see the deep reasons of phenomena being studied.