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The correlations between air pollution and depression.


Introduction: In the 21st century there is an increased prevalence of depression in the world. So far the mechanism of developing depression has not been exactly known. Risk factors of depression occurrence are complex and nowadays it has been emphasized that air pollution can affect the intensity of depressive symptoms.

Objective: The analysis of the scientific works investigating the correlations between air pollution and depression.

Material and method: The material consisted of the studies published between 2007 and 2017. A systematic review of Medline database (using PubMed search engine) was conducted by typing the English phrase (air pollution) and (depression), and 154 results were obtained. Those results which concerned nicotine addiction or dementia diseases were rejected. The inclusion criterion was the number of people tested, n>500 in case of adults, and n>200 in case of children (a small number of publications). All in all, 9 research in the population of adults and 1 research in the group of children were included to the final analysis. In the discussion part of this work some research carried out on animals and related to the subject matter of own analyses were also investigated.

Results: As many as 8 out of 10 analyzed research demonstrated statistically significant correlation between long-term exposure to air pollution (mainly to fine particulate matter, PM) and depression. This correlation mainly concerned intensification of depressive symptoms during long exposure to air pollution. The exposure also resulted in changes in the neuro-transfer of serotonin and as well in neurodegenerative changes in children exposed to long-term pollution with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in prenatal life. Testing on animals indicates that air pollution affects the activation of proinflammatory processes in hippocampus, what may incidentally contribute to the formation of depressive and cognitive symptoms.

Conclusions: In view of the increase of depression incidence and constantly sustained air pollution in the world, there is a need for further research on the correlation between air pollution and depression, taking into account the genetic, social and psychological factors.

Open access
Flaxseed oil supplementation manipulates correlations between serum individual mol % free fatty acid levels and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetics. Insulin resistance and percent remaining pancreatic β-cell function are unaffected


Objectives. Elevated total serum free fatty acids (FFAs) concentrations have been suggested, controversially, to enhance insulin resistance and decrease percent remaining β-cell function. However, concentrations of individual serum FFAs have never been published in terms of their relationship (correlation) to homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and percent remaining β-cell function (HOMA-%β) in the type 2 diabetics (T2Ds). Alpha-linolenic acid consumption has a negative correlation with the insulin resistance, which in turn is negatively correlated with the remaining β-cell function. The primary objective was to test the hypothesis that there would be different relationship (correlation) between the blood serum individual free FFA mol % levels and HOMA-IR and/or HOMA-%β in T2D. The secondary objective was to test the hypothesis that flaxseed oil, previously being shown to be ineffective in the glycemic control in T2Ds, may alter these correlations in a statistically significant manner as well as HOMA-IR and/or HOMA-%β.

Methods. Patients were recruited via a newspaper advertisement and two physicians have been employed. All the patients came to visit one and three months later for a second visit. At the second visit, the subjects were randomly assigned (double blind) to flaxseed or safflower oil treatment for three months, until the third visit.

Results. Different statistically significant correlations or trends towards among some serum individual free FFA mol % levels and HOMA-IR and HOMA-%β, pre- and post-flaxseed and safflower oil supplementation were found. However, flaxseed oil had no impact on HOMA-IR or HOMA-%β despite statistically significant alterations in correlations compared to baseline HOMA-IR.

Conclusions. The obtained data indicate that high doses of flaxseed oil have no statistically significant effect on HOMA-IR or HOMA-%β in T2Ds, probably due to the additive effects of negative and positive correlations.

Open access
Insight and recovery and the stigma of mental illness - analysis of the phenomenon of insight in schizophrenia and its correlations with the processes of stigma and self-stigma


Does better insight associated with the process of recovery mean a stronger sense of mental illness stigma? This article presents the relationship between a multidimensional construct, which is the insight and the phenomena of stigma and self-stigma of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. It is well known that the term insight contains: a sense of illness, the patient's attitude to its symptoms, explanation of the causes of the illness, attitude to the rationale of treatment and awareness of the risk of relapse. On the other hand, self-stigma occurs when the patient internalizes and refers to himself/herselfnegative and stigmatizing social attitudes, conditioned by the presence of conventionalbeliefs, strengthened by the media, and this weakens the process of recovery.

How much does good insight strengthen the patient on the way to fuller social functioning, and how much does it imprint stigma of mental illness and weaken its positionin society? The authors of the paper are discussing the subject of insight and stigma from the patient's perspective, over the patient’s attitude towards the diagnosis of schizophrenia, the process of recovery and the aspect of hope - important in recovery. These study of construct insight shows that the relationship insight-recovery-stigma is a multi-dimensional plane, dependent on various factors, that needs constant deepening and complementing with further research.

Open access
Salivary cortisol and nitrite concentrations in school teachers: A longitudinal pilot study

. Maidana P, Bruno OD, Mesch V. A critical analysis of cortisol measurements: an update. Medicina (B Aires) 73, 579–584, 2013. McEwen BS. Physiology and neurobiology of stress and adaptation: central role of the brain. Physiol Rev 87, 873–904, 2007. Miller DB, O’Callaghan JP. Neuroendocrine aspects of the response to stress. Metabolism 51, 5–10, 2002. Mukaka MM. A guide to appropriate use of correlation coefficient in medical research. Malawi Med J 24, 69–71, 2012. Pruessner JC, Kirschbaum C, Meinlschmid G, Hellhammer DH. Two formulas for

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Sex and salt intake dependent renin-angiotensin plasticity in the liver of the rat


Objective. Epidemiological studies confirm that hypertensive patients respond differently to renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibition depending on their gender. The aim of present work is to focus on sex-dependent differences in RAS regulation under conditions of increased salt intake.

Method. To investigate RAS, we measured the expression of angiotensinogen (Agt) mRNA, angiotensin receptor type 1 (AT1) mRNA and mitochondria assembly receptor (MasR) in the liver of rats under control conditions and after feeding with a salt diet (2% NaCl). In parallel, vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) mRNA was analyzed.

Results. Regression analysis revealed sex-dependent differences in the correlation between mRNA expression of AT1 and that of Agt, MasR and VEGF-A in both groups. There was a significant negative correlation between AT1 and Agt mRNA expression in the male control group, but this correlation disappeared in males exposed to a salt diet. In females, AT1 and Agt expression correlated only in the group exposed to the salt diet. In control males, there was a borderline trend to correlation between AT1 and MasR mRNA expression. The correlation between AT1 and VEGF-A mRNA expression was significant only in the control females, however, after exposure to a salt diet, this correlation diminished.

Conclusions. We hypothesize that RAS components expression is compensated differently in males and females. The observed loss of compensatory relationships in RAS between AT1 and Agt and AT1 and MasR in male rats under a salt diet can contribute to the differences observed in human with hypertension associated with an unhealthy diet.

Open access
Intrapersonal conflicts of bloggers: psychological perspective



The aim of the study was to establish depth and substantive characteristics of intrapersonal conflicts of bloggers. Internal conflicts were analyzed at the levels of individual typological characteristics, self-conception, and value orientation of personality.

Research methodology.

The study was based on the method of content analysis and psychodiagnostic tests. 100 respondents (50 respondents who have blogs and 50 respondents who do not have blogs) were examined with Sobczyk’s individual typological questionnaire, Stephenson’s Q sorting, Budassi’s scale of self-assessment, Leary’s interpersonal diagnosis of personality, Fantalova’s value / accessibility correlation in different life spheres. Mann-Whitney test and Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient were applied for statistical data processing.

Research results.

The results of the survey support the hypothesis regarding the special character of the intra-personal conflicts of bloggers in comparison with those people who do not have blogs and use the Internet less often. In fact, conflicts between real self and virtual self are characteristic of bloggers. Most of the tension is the result of contradiction of ideas about their personal social and communicative competence and the opposition of coping strategies “acceptance of struggle – avoidance of struggle”.


There are different views on how the Internet influences psychological wellbeing. Social networks allow bloggers to present themselves in a certain desired light, to create some image, to stress their unique features, to attract attention to those character properties which are not manifested in real life as desired.

Open access
Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) may be superior to C-reactive protein (CRP) for predicting the occurrence of differentiated thyroid cancer


Objectives. NLR (neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio) and PLR (platelet-lymphocyte ratio) are prognostic markers of differentiated thyroid cancers. In our study, we evaluated NLR, PLR and C-reactive protein (CRP) for predicting the occurence of differentiated thyroid cancer. This is the first study that compares NLR and PLR to C-reactive protein indifferantiated thyroid cancer not only papillary cancer but also folliculer cancer.

Methods. This study includes 51 papillary carcinoma, 42 papillary microcarcinoma and 31 folliculer carcinoma patients attending to our outpatient Endocrinology Clinic at Erzurum Region Training and Research Hospital between 2009 and 2014. The control group include 50 age, sex and body mass index matched healty subjects. Blood counts and CRP were measured at the day before surgery. Thyroglobulin was measured after 6 months of operation.

Results. There were positive correlations between tumor diameter, age, white blood cell (WBC) and thyroglobulin levels. There were also positive correlation between NLR, PLR and CRP levels.

Conclusion. In our study, we found out that higher NLR and PLR was associated with higher levels of thyroglobulin which indicates worse survival. CRP levels were also associated with poorer tumor profile but the determining rate was lower according to ROC analysis

Open access
Enkephalinase activity is modified and correlates with fatty acids in frontal cortex depending on fish, olive or coconut oil used in the diet


Objective. Enkephalins are neuropeptides involved in functions such as pain modulation and/ or cognitive processes. It has been reported that dietary fat modifies enkephalins in the brain. Since enkephalins are hydrolyzed by enkephalinases, the study of the influence of dietary fats, differing in their degree of saturation, on brain fatty acids content and enkephalinase activity is important to understand its regulatory role on neuropeptides under different type of diets.

Methods. We analyzed enkephalinase activity, assayed with alanine-β-naphthylamide as sub-strate, in frontal cortex of adult male rats fed diets supplemented with fish oil, olive oil or coconut oil, which markedly differed in the saturation of their fatty acids.

Results. Rats fed a diet enriched with coconut oil had lower soluble enkephalinase activity than the group fed olive oil (p<0.01) and fish oil (p<0.05) whereas rats fed a diet enriched with fish oil had lower membrane-bound enkephalinase activity than the group fed with olive (p<0.001) or coconut oil (p<0.05). Significant negative correlations were observed between certain fatty acids and enkephalinase activities in the groups fed with olive and coconut oils. No correlations were observed in the group fed with fish oil.

Conclusions. Dietary fat modifies enkephalinase activity in the frontal cortex depending on the degree of saturation of the used oil. It is postulated that the functions, in which enkephalins are involved, such as pain modulation or cognitive functions, may also be affected according to the type of oil used in the diet.

Open access
Review paper. Does genius border on insanity? Part I: A relationship between creativity and the presence of psychopathological symptoms in bipolar disorder


The theory linking the development of mental disorders with the processes of human evolution assumes that these disorders may be the result of a side effect of natural and sexual selection processes. Creativity is one of the adaptive features associated with the increased incidence of psychopathological symptoms (as compared to the general population).

In this review paper, the definition of creativity has been characterized, and contemporary existing theories on its background, have been presented. Also, the paper describes the relationship between creativity and the presence of psychopathological symptoms. Special attention has been paid to the relationship between creativity and bipolar disorder.

The research results prove the existence of a correlation between a high level of creativity and a higher prevalence of psychopathological symptoms, particularly concerning the symptoms of bipolar disorder spectrum.

Open access
Factors associated with increased irisin levels in the type 1 diabetes mellitus


Objective. The aim of the present study was to determine the irisin levels in patients with the type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and to examine the relation of irisin levels with the inflammation and autoimmunity.

Methods. This study included 35 cases diagnosed with T1DM and 36 healthy volunteers. Antiglutamic acid decarboxylase (anti-GAD), islet cell antibody (ICA), and insulin autoantibody levels were measured in patients at the time when they were included into the study and recorded from the patient files. Serum irisin levels were measured by ELISA kit.

Results. The median irisin levels were determined higher in T1DM group compared to the control one (6.8 ng/ml vs. 4.8 ng/ml, p=0.022; respectively). Median irisin levels were higher in anti-GAD (p=0.022) and ICA (p=0.044) positive groups compared to negative groups. In T1DM group, irisin levels displayed positive correlation with glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) (r=0.377, p<0.001) and anti-GAD (r=0.392, p=0.020) and negative correlation with creatinine (r=-0390, p=0.021). In multivariate regression model, HbA1c (B±SE: 2.76±17683, p<0.001), and anti-GAD (B±SE: 2.311±0.610, p=0.001) were determined as independent predictors for predicting the irisin levels.

Conclusion. In patients with T1DM, which chronic inflammation and autoimmunity take part in their etiopathogenesis, anti-GAD levels were an independent risk factor for the irisin. Th is may suggest that factors such as inflammation and autoimmunity can be effective in the synthesis of irisin.

Open access