An unfavorable investment climate, especially in the sphere of corporate relationships, necessitates the revision of investment and corporate legislation in Ukraine. The purposes of this study are to reveal the particular legislative defects and the practical problems caused by these defects that European investors may face during the realization of their corporate rights in Ukraine and to evaluate how Ukrainian investment law, particularly legal norms aimed at protection of investors’ rights, corresponds to international (European) standards. This research identifies gaps and contradictions in Ukrainian legislation in the sphere of corporate investment that cause difficulties in practical applications and attempts to find ways to solve these problems. This paper argues that most problems caused by legislative contradictions can be solved by using the rule of the correlation of general and special normative legal acts, unlike legislative gaps, which must be eliminated by appropriate legislative amendments.
The Web of the EU'S Neighbourhood Policy: Between Bilateralism and Multilateralism
This article examines the divergence in the EU's strategies towards neighbours. The goal is to connect different EU neighbourhood initiatives into one framework in making a correlation between national and supranational levels. The distinction between bilateralism/multilateralism and Russia inclusion/Russia exclusion is made within both levels. The division is between European Neighbourhood policy and Eastern Partnership (within bilateral framework) on the one hand, and Northern dimension initiative and Black Sea Synergy on the other. These different EU's strategies towards neighbours reflect contradictory EU development models. The argument is made that national preferences and interests precondition a variety of the EU's neighbourhood initiatives and create a web in EU's neighbourhood policy that is filled with many contradictions.
Pro-Western Attitudes in the Five Central and East European States: Electoral Behavior
This article examines electoral behavior in the post-communist countries of Central and Eastern Europe (Poland, the Baltic States and Ukraine). The main aim is to analyze electoral behavior in particular sub-national territories in order to discover differences and common trends in the countries examined. The article discusses interconnections between socio-economic, ethnic, and cultural characteristics of particular sub-national territories and the attitudes of their inhabitants expressed in voting results and opinion polls. The factor of post-World War II immigration (historic immigration) seems to still determine regional culture (including political preferences) in all the countries under consideration. The specific details of electoral behavior are analyzed using quantitative method. This method helps to examine the results of parliamentary and presidential elections and EU accession referenda of 2003. Correlations between independent and dependent variables repeated in a number of measurements show certain tendencies within each examined country. The totality of such tendencies demonstrates common trends of electoral behavior in post-communist space.
The results of literature analysis confirm the strategic value of intangible resources in creating wealth and conferring competitive advantages to nations. However, there are few academic papers related to intangible resources at country level. At national level, economic growth is increasingly based on knowledge and other intangible resources than on physical ones. To test this hypothesis in Romania, this article analyses how intangible resources influence economic growth, and correlation indices between different types of intangible resources and gross domestic product value are calculated. The analysis shows that there are very strong positive correlations between GDP and most of the intangible resource variables. Despite the importance of intangible resources at national level and the fact that they are an important factor in determining economic growth in the current knowledge-based economy, Romania's position in the international context regarding intangible assets is very weak, with many weak points in research and innovation performance compared to other EU Member States. Therefore, there is a need in our country to re-evaluate the areas where all efforts need to be focused to stimulate innovation performance, to properly manage national intangible resources, a crucial process for improving the quality of life
The aim of the paper is to discuss the spatial distribution of foreign employees in highlyskilled, skilled and unskilled job positions by using correlation and regression analyses. On the one hand, our results indicate that foreign employees, no matter what job position they work in, usually concentrate in districts where regional centers or eventually large industrial factories are located. The outcomes also indicate that these foreign employees are usually employed in areas where foreigners were also employed in previous years. On the other hand, there seem to be determinants of the spatial distribution of foreigners that differ by job positions. The spatial distribution of foreign employees in highly-skilled job positions seems to be primarily influenced by characteristics of the economic area, whereas the spatial pattern of foreign employees in skilled and unskilled job positions seem to be more determined by the characteristics of the labour market area.
In the complex and controversial security environment characterized by dynamic changes and the trend of increasing resource limitation, there is the disbalance between the projected capabilities and the maintenance of the existing ones on the one hand, and on the other - the need for the defense capabilities to be adaptable to the parameters of the changing environment. This necessitates compliance to one of the fundamental principles for enhancing the effectiveness of the defense policy - the principle of improving management as a process and structure for the management of defense resources and related defense products. Moreover, maintaining a stable level of defense spending as a proportion of gross domestic product, is the basis for building the necessary defense capabilities in accordance to the imperatives of the modern armed forces. It is of utmost importance to achieve a balance in the correlation “resources-capabilities-effects”. This, in a security environment which is marked by terrorism provoked by the actions of the “Islamic State” and the permanent threat they impose, by the migration flows that create conditions for serious alteration of the morals and traditions of the “Old continent” and its economic stability, by the danger of spreading and instilling radical Islamism and “redrawing” of state borders, and by hybrid war, is the challange which provokes the scientific research of the author.
This paper follows our previous article, Kotlán and Machová (2012a), which presented an indicator of the tax burden that can be used as an alternative to the tax quota, or for implicit tax rates in macroeconomic analyses. This alternative is an overall multi-criteria index called the WTI - the World Tax Index. The aim of this paper is to present the new World Tax Index 2013 and its methodology, which allowed us to compute it for all 34 OECD countries for the 2000-2012 period, with special references to methodology changes from the previous version. We show that, using the WTI, the highest tax burden is measured for Denmark, Belgium and Turkey, while the lowest tax burden is in Switzerland, Ireland, Chile or Japan. The total ranking of the countries is from 66% correlated with the ranking according to the tax quota, mainly due to a strong correlation in the case of property taxes, personal income taxes and VAT-type taxes. In these cases, the tax quota seems to be a good approximator of the tax burden. However, there is no correlation between corresponding tax quotas and WTI sub-indices for corporate taxes or selective consumption taxes. In those cases, the tax quota apparently fails and is not suitable for use in further analyses.
For the sake of contemporaneity, the notion of sustainable development has become the key concept in developing new paradigms of human survival, in designing new ways of managing social systems. The current state of today’s humanity is looking for a new development model as well as new security objectives.
Considered as a process over time, human development means creating, through action at policy level, the conditions for facilitating sustainable human development, such as appropriate education, health, material wellbeing, participation, social empowerment and inclusion and establishment of a model of socially and geographically equitable economic growth.
In May 2007, the Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Sport of the Slovak Republic approved the National Program for Learning Regions. It states that the long-term strategic objective for the development of Slovak regions is the gradual reduction of disparities in living standards in regions and to improve regional economic performance. One of the tools for achieving this goal is considered the learning region concept. The main aim of this article is to streamline the presentation and monitoring of the partial progress made in achieving the objectives of the National Program for Learning Regions in the Slovak Republic to policy-makers and to make this relatively complex issue accessible to a wider audience through one aggregated index and two partial indices; the PCA method was used. The results showed relatively large differences between regions. The highest value of the aggregated LR index was reached by the Trnava region, followed by the Bratislava region; these two regions seems to be in accordance with reaching the objectives of the National Program for Learning Regions. The lowest values were found in the Banská Bystrica, Prešov and Košice regions. Moreover, we found a positive correlation between aggregated and economical-innovative indices with average GDP during the years 2008–2014 at the NUTS 3 level.
Luděk Kouba, Michal Mádr, Danuše Nerudová and Petr Rozmahel
Summer School on the Logic of Self-reinforcing Processes in Organizations, Networks, and Markets , Freie Universität Berlin.
Roman, A. and Bilan, I. (2008). Appreciations concerning economic policies coordination in EMU. Annals of the University of Oradea, Economic Science Series , 17(3), 509–512.
Rozmahel, P., Grochová, L. and Litzman, M. (2014). The effect of asymmetries in fiscal policy conducts on business cycle correlation in the EU. WWWforEurope Working Paper , No. 62.
Rozmahel, P., Kouba, L., Grochová, L. and Najman, N. (2013). Integration of