With the development of industry, agriculture, exploitation of natural sources and with boom of settlement density, the environment is being affected by potentially toxic elements; the phenomenon is consequently reflected on human health. Cadmium is a high risk element for the whole environment. The aim of this research was to analyse and evaluate sediments of selected water reservoirs during the ten-year period in order to determine the concentrations of selected, potentially toxic elements. For statistical processing, the correlation coefficient by the Spearman method and the analysis of the index were used. Sediments are reliable indicators of environmental pollution. The analyses of the sediment samples were carried out by the flow electrochemistry and the atomic absorption spectrometry methods. The total concentration of Cd in sediments was up to 22.60 mg kg−1 of dry matter. pH/KCl was marked in the range from 5.6 to 7.2. From statistical processing of sediments data by Spearman, we determined the dependencies between Cd and the following elements: As, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn. The relations between Cd and the following elements: Pb, As and Cu were very highly positive.
The aim of this study was to analyse sediments of the selected water reservoirs of Piargs group. Secondly, our purpose was to determine values of exchange reactions in soil of these sediments during the period from 2001 to 2010 and to evaluate environmental hazards caused by the selected potentially toxic elements affected by pH. Based on the results gained by analysis we aim to determine the correlation and statistical significance of dependencies of the analysed environmental parameters. Two different methods, the flow electrochemical method and the atomic absorption spectrometric method have been used to analyse the content of potentially toxic chemical elements in leachate. The analysis of leachate samples, in order to find out the values of exchange reactions in soil, was carried out by potentiometry. Ascertained values of exchange reactions in soil ranged from 5.6 to 7.2. According to the calculated indices of dependencies, the development of pH/KCl values can be evaluated as moderately dynamic. The calculated indices of the Spearman‘s correlation coefficient for exchange reactions in soil demonstrate statistically significant dependence, especially for zinc and cadmium.
It is a general socio-political objective of the mid- and long term food industry development strategy of Hungary to promote healthy food production and consumption. The realization of the strategy of the domestic food industry increasingly promotes healthy eating, for example consuming natural, domestic, fresh ingredients, prepared foods, in order to improve the overall health of the population (EFS, 2014-2020). Our study presents the regional tendencies of staple food consumption in Hungarian regions and the changes in indicators reflecting the health status of the population. Furthermore, our hypothesis states that there is a statistically provable correlation between the annual food consumption of Hungarian households per capita and the health status, on regional level.
The utilization of renewable energy sources has an increasing role in the EU’s climate and energy policy. There are several reasons for increasing the use of renewable energy. The motives are the reduction of imported dependence on fossil fuels, mitigation of the adverse environmental impact of the energy sector and boosting of industrial development. The study provides a comprehensive overview on the structure and utilization of energy production of the Visegrad countries, focusing on the dependence on energy imports. The purpose of the article is to analyze the gross inland energy consumption of the Visegrad countries and to examine the relationship between renewables and non-renewable energy sources. In the course of the analysis, we tried to find out which non-renewable energy carrier is replaced by the renewables.
The paper presents preliminary results of investigations on a relationship between turbidity and other quality parameters in the SBR plant effluent. The laboratory tests demonstrated a high correlation between an effluent turbidity and a total suspended solids (TSS) concentration as well as between TSS and COD. Such a relationship would help to continuously monitor and control quality of a wastewater discharge using turbidity measurement.
An important method of investigating N2O emissions from cropland is model simulation. The measured data of N2O emissions under conventional tillage (CT) and reduced tillage (RT) with (N1) and without (N0) N fertilizer application were used to test the DNDC model during the year 2012 (April-December) in Slovakia. There was found a good agreement with seasonal N2O emissions only for CTN0 treatment, but in case of other treatments DNDC overestimated the emissions. The relative deviation between observed and simulated total seasonal N2O emissions (kg N ha−1) from four treatments were 46%, 164%, 346% and 321% for CTN0, CTN1, RTN0 and RTN1, respectively. Also, some discrepancies were found between observed and simulated emissions when evaluating the daily N2O emissions, especially when looking at the magnitude of N2O emissions peaks. The correlation between observed and simulated daily N2O emissions (N = 38) in case of conventional tillage was quite high and significant with r = 0.48 (P <0.01), r = 0.45 (P <0.01) for CTN0 and CTN1 treatment, respectively. On the other hand, there was found poor correlation in reduced tillage treatment with r = 0.22 (P >0.01) and r = 0.39 (P >0.01), for RTN0, RTN1, respectively.
Soil water content is very important for agricultural practice. Direct measurements of the soil moisture are being replaced by mathematical simulations and models step by step. One of the most used models for the simulation of the soil moisture is HYDRUS 1D model. This paper deals with HYDRUS 1D validity check in the Nitra River Catchment. Three different localities in the Nitra River Catchment (Malanta, Kolíňany and Dolné Naštice) were chosen for model validity check. Both, measurements and modelling of soil moisture, were made for these localities in three years (8/2011 - 8/2014). The evaluation of model validity was performed by calculation of the correlation coefficient and count of comparisons with variance of 15%. The correlation coefficients of measured and simulated data were between 0.67 and 0.95. Data comparisons with variance of 15% among measured and simulated data were between 79 to 100%. Based on these results we can declare that HYDRUS 1D model is valid for the conditions of Slovak catchments.
This paper presents the content changes in the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) solubilised in hydrolisates obtained from thermally disintegrated municipal waste biofractions. A series of tests related to biowaste undergoing thermal treatment at the following temperatures: 55, 75, 95, 115, 135, 155 and 175°C were conducted for 0.5, 1 and 2 hours. The highest increase in COD solid fraction solubilisation (238%) was observed for the samples disintegrated at 175°C for 2 hours. The values of the reaction rate coefficient k20 = 0.6 d-1 and temperature coefficient θ = 1.023 were determined. Statistical analysis of the multiple regression (correlation coefficient R = 0.89) showed that the temperature has a greater impact on COD solid fraction solubilisation - determined β = 0.66. The multiple correlation coefficient for the treatment time was β = 0.61.
Lilla Áldorfai Czabadai, Zoltán Topa and György Áldorfai
By themselves, GDP and regional GDP are no longer satisfying to determine the development level of a region. However, it is very important to know what kind of factors could influence the income status of a region. In our study we tried to collect basic data which represent the chosen topic well, and more importantly, which are easy to access and are interpretable at smaller (for example settlement) territorial levels. The frame of our investigation was the programming period from 2007 to 2013. We compared the sum of different subsidies, local taxes and the gross value added to the settlements’ income status. Based on our previous hypothesis, the received supports, the taxes paid by local people and the gross value added generated by local enterprises show strong correlation with the formation of the income status, and this hypothesis was tested for cities and towns in this paper.
Gala Lake National Park that has an international importance is one of the most important wetland ecosystems for Turkey. As same as many aquatic habitats, Gala Lake is under a significant anthropogenic pressure originated from agricultural activities conducted around the lake and from industrial discharges by means of Ergene River.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the sediment quality of Gala Lake and Irrigation Canal by investigating some toxic element accumulations (As, B, Ni, Cr, Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu) from a statistical perspective. Pearson Correlation Index (PCI) and Factor Analysis (FA) were applied to detected data in order to determine the associated contaminants and effective factors on the system. Potential Ecological Risk Index (RI) and Biological Risk Index based sediment quality guidelines (mERM-Q) applied to detected data in order to assess the ecological and biological risks of heavy metals in the ecosystem. Also Geographic Information System (GIS) technology was used to make visual explanations by presenting distribution maps of investigated elements.
According to the results of PCI, significant positive correlations were recorded among the investigated toxic elements at 0.01 significance level. According to the results of FA, two factors, which were named as “Agricultural Factor” and “Industrial Factor”, explained 86.6% of the total variance. According to the results of Potential Ecological Risk Index, cadmium was found to be the highest risk factor and according to results of Biological Risk Index, nickel and chromium were found to be the highest risk factors for Gala Lake and Irrigation Canal. As a result of the present study, it was also determined that heavy metal contents in sediments of Gala Lake National Park reached to critical levels and the system is intensively under effect of agricultural and industrial originated pollution.