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Maciej Chmielewski, Szymon Fulara and Marian Gieras
The aim of this article is to describe the use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model for turboshaft combustor chamber deterioration analysis. To show advantages of the proposed approach the test bench of GTD-350 turboshaft engine operating at the Institute of Heat Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology was used as an example. The CFD modelling of the reactive flow inside 40º sector of GTD-350 engine section was developed. Proposed modelling technique provides good correlations with experimental data and shows that the combustor front wall soot accumulation is clearly related to the fuel droplets residence time and the oxygen mass fraction. The temperature distribution inside the combustion chamber allows concluding on possible hot distress areas on the combustion chamber liner walls. Engine borescope inspection (BSI) of the compressor, combustion chamber, compressor turbine and power turbine is used to correlate model predictions with a real GTD-350 engine deterioration. Very good correlation of the engine BSI observations with the numerical predictions proves usefulness of the developed model. Finally, advantages and future applications of the developed model are discussed.
This paper presents the analysis of air pollution monitoring and evaluation results in the center of Riga City. The air quality reports have pointed out that road traffic and road infrastructure are the main issues of air pollution in the center of Riga. However, none of the reports validated this assumption considering actual traffic flow data. In the present article, the air pollution data have been collected and analyzed in the context with traffic flow. The statistical analysis of both the air pollution and traffic flow data was performed and the correlation between them was established and evaluated. Finally, the conclusions and recommendations for further improvements of the methodology of measurements necessary for successful air quality assessment in the urban areas and particularly in Riga city are given.
Uldis Lencis, Aigars Udris and Aleksandrs Korjakins
The ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) in water-saturated concrete is higher than in dry concrete. However, moisture influence on the UPV is defined within a wide range: - from negligible to quite significant (16 per cent). The nature of "UPV − concrete moisture" correlation is also interpreted in different ways - both as linear and as exponential. This paper reviews how various degrees of moisture saturation influence the UPV in concrete when sounding is carried out by the frequently used ultrasonic testing method - the indirect transmission by using longitudinal wave pulse. Research was conducted on specimens hardened both under standard conditions and at elevated temperatures. The results show a sudden UPV increase at the degree when the maximum water absorption in concrete is achieved.