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Critical state constitutive models and shear loading of overconsolidated clays with deviatoric hardening

. Elastic strains are given by Equation (10) . (10) ε ˙ _ _ e = κ * 3 p ( − p ˙ 1 _ _ + 1 + v 1 − 2 v s ˙ _ _ ) $${{\underline{\underline{{\dot{\varepsilon }}}}}^{e}}=\frac{{{\kappa }^{*}}}{3p}(-\dot{p}\underline{\underline{1}}+\frac{1+v}{1-2v}\underline{\underline{{\dot{s}}}})$$ The isotropic unloading and reloading are supposed to be elastic. This formulation for elastic behavior does not satisfy the principle of energy conservation for elastic loading as shown by Zytynski, Randolph, and Wroth (1978) and discussed by Wood (2003) . For

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Geomechanical Numerical Analysis as a Guidance for Preservation Works of the “Wieliczka” Salt Mine Site

Abstract

Salt was excavated at the “Wieliczka” Salt Mine for over 700 years. Underground mining operations terminated in 1996, by which time almost 2,400 chambers and 245 km of galleries had been created underground, situated on 9 levels and a few interlevels. In 1978, the mine was included in the UNESCO World Heritage List, which stated that parts of the mine with historical value had to be preserved for future generations. In order to preserve the most valuable chambers and galleries, activities aimed at establishing a protection pillar for excavations were conducted in the conservation area on Levels I-V. The need of large scope preserving works created the necessity to conduct a new and truly comprehensive geomechanical analysis. Such an analysis could only be done by means of advanced numerical modelling codes. Three-dimensional calculations were performed by means of FLAC 3D finite difference code. Rock mass stability assessment in the vicinity of excavations was carried out on the basis of the distribution and range of the so called failure zones. This comprehensive geomechanical analysis allows for verification and give the directions for future preservation and closure works in the “Wieliczka” mine.

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THE RECONSTRUCTION OF THE HISTORICAL BUILDING OF THE LATIN SCHOOL IN MALBORK

Abstract

The paper summarizes the reconstruction of the historical building erected in the 14th century, during the times of the residence of Grand Master of the Teutonic Order Winrich von Kniprode, currently referred to as the Latin School. It characterizes the location of the Latin School in the urban conservation area of the town of Malbork. The building is situated in the stretch of the buttressed brick escarpment on the Nogat River in the line of the historic defensive walls of Malbork. The paper also outlines the history of this building, constructed and managed by the municipal authorities of Malbork, which for a long time was a seat of a Patronage of Saint George and the Merchant Guild, and next, from the 16th century until 1864, the building housed a school where basic Latin was taught. Next, the situation of this historical monument in the 20th century is discussed. In the next part of the paper, the geological conditions of the site where the building was erected are discussed. The conducted archeological and architectural exploratory research related to the historical building with a particular emphasis on historic preservation and restoration works focusing on the building and its surroundings is presented and analyzed. Currently carried out design, construction and adaptation works allowing new functions to be embedded into this building are also discussed. The paper shows the benefits due to the realization of the reconstruction program of the degraded building of the Latin school in the historic quarter of the town. These activities are aimed at the conversion of the currently derelict building by means of embedding new functions into it. There are being designed, among others, an interactive educational center modern library, astronomical observatory, craft museum and multifunctional hall, allowing proper conditions to be created for the development of educational, artistic and tourism related activities in the reconstructed building. The reconstruction of the historical building is a positive response to its deterioration resulting from former activities and it will contribute to the improvement of the quality of cultural life of both local inhabitants and visitors.

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The Use of Asymptotic Functions for Determining Empirical Values of CN Parameter in Selected Catchments of Variable Land Cover

irrigation project and water supply at large scale , Int. J. Adv. Sci. Tech. Res., 2013, 3, 617–639. [7] C hen C.L., An evaluation of the mathematics and physical significance of the Soil Conservation Service curve number procedure for estimating runoff volume , Proc., Int. Symp. on Rainfall-Runoff Modeling, Water Resources Publ., Littleton, Colo., 1982, 387–418. [8] D eshmukh D.S., C haube U.C., H ailu A.E., G udeta D.A., K assa M.T., Estimation and comparison of curve numbers based on dynamic land use land cover change, observed rainfall-runoff data

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Scale Effect in Direct Shear Tests on Recycled Concrete Aggregate

-68. [8] LI X., Recycling and reuse of waste concrete in China. Part I. Material behaviour of recycled aggregate concrete, Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 2008, 53(1), 36-44, DOI: 10.1016/j.resconrec.2008.09.006. [9] LIMBACHIYA M.C., LEELAWAT T., DHIR R.K., Use of recycled concrete aggregate in high-strength concrete, Materials and Structures, 2000, 33(9), 574-580. [10] MOAYED R.Z., ALIZADEH A., Effects of shear box size on the strength for different type of silty sands in direct shear tests, Unsaturated Soils: Theory and Practice

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Stability analysis of underground mining openings with complex geometry

, [ Conservation plan of underground natural reserve “Crystal Caves” in Wieliczka Salt Mine ], Fundacja „Nauka i Tradycje Górnicze”, 2009, (in Polish). [10] A leksandrowicz Z., (ed.), Crystal Caves in the Wieliczka Salt Mine , Studia Naturae, 2000, No. 46 (2000) [11] G aweł A., Budowa geologiczna złoża solnego Wieliczka , [ Geological structure of Wieliczka Salt Mine ], Prace Instytutu Geologicznego 30, 1962, No 3, (in Polish). [12] K olasa K., Ś lączka A., Sedimentary salt megabreccia exposed in the Wieliczka Mine, (Fore Carpathian Depression) , Acta

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Ultrasonic Waves and Strength Reduction Indexes for the Assessment of the Advancement of Deterioration Processes in Travertines from Pamukkale and Hierapolis (Turkey)

References [1] ATTIA EL-METWALLI H.R., Geomechanical study of restoration and Conservation of Maadi Town Temple Fayoum Egypt, Ph.D. Thesis, Faculty of Geology, Warsaw University, 2001. [2] BELLOPEDE R., MARINI P., The Effect of Water on The Strength of Building Stones, American Journal of Environmental Sciences, 2012a, 8/2, 158-161. [3] BELLOPEDE R., MARINI P., Sandstone decay: from historical buildings to laboratory tests, SAHC, 2012b, 1, 691-696. [4] BOBROWSKA A., Ultrasonic investigations in

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