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An application of graph theory to linguistic complexity

variable. Oxford: Oxford University Press Saussure, F. de. 1916. Cours de linguistique générale. Paris: Editions Payot & Rivages. Shosted, R. 2006. “Correlating complexity: A typological approach”. Linguistic Typology 10(1). 1-40. Trudgill, P. 2012. “On the sociolinguistic typology of linguistic complexity loss”. In: Seifart, F. et al. (eds.), Potentials of language documentation: Methods, analyses, and utilization. (Language Documentation & Conservation Special Publication No.3.) 90-95.

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Multilingual Legislation in the European Union. EU and National Legislative-Language Styles and Terminology

:// Directive 2009/147/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 30 November 2009 on the conservation of wild birds (codified version) (OJ L 20, 26.1.2010. 7). See generally: Gallas, Tito. 1999. "Coredazione e Traduzione Giuridica nella Legislazione Multilingue, in Particolare Quella Comunitaria". 43 Quaderni di Libri e riviste d'Italia, la Traduzione, Saggi e documenti (IV) , 135

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Travelling Ideologies: A Story of Whiteness

. DuBois, William Edward Burghard. The Conservation of Races and the Negro . 1897. A Penn State University Electronic Classics Series Publication. (2007). Web. 13 Jun. 2015. Dyer, Richard. White. London: Routledge, 1997. Print. Dyson, Michael Eric. Reflecting Black: African-American Cultural Criticism . Minneapolis: U. of Minnesota P., 1993. Print. Eagleton, Terry. “Nationalism: Irony and Commitment.” 1988. Nationalism, Colonialism and Literature . 23-40. Minneapolis: U. of Minnesota P., 1990. Print. Fanon, Frantz. Black Skin

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Exploring into Graduate Research Term Papers: A Quest for Generic Disciplinary Tendencies

, Ismet. 2007. The Textual Organization of Research Article Introductions in Applied Linguistics: Variability within a Single Discipline. English for Specific Purposes 26(1). 25–38. Pillai, Anitha Devi. 2012. Discourse Analysis of Research Papers and the Acculturation Experiences of Novice Writers in a University Foundation Program. University of Singapore, Ph. D Dissertation. Samraj, Betty and John Swales. 2000. Writing in Conservation Biology: Searching for an Inter-disciplinary Rhetoric? Language and Learning Across the Disciplines 3. 36

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Linguistic Diversity, Language Rights And Language Ecology

(pp. 1–50). Washington, D.C.: The Smithsonian Institute Press. Maffi, L. (2005). Linguistic, Cultural, and Biological Diversity. Annual Review of Anthropology , 34, 599–617. Maffi, L. &Woodley, E. (eds) (2010). Biocultural Diversity Conservation: A Global Sourcebook . London: Earthscan. Magga, O. H., Nicolaisen, I., Trask, M., Dunbar, R. &Skutnabb-Kangas, T. (2005). Indigenous Children’s Education and Indigenous Languages . Expert paper written for the United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues. New York: United Nations. Skutnabb

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Intonation of Persian declaratives: Read vs. spontaneous speech

:// Gussenhoven, C. (2004). The phonology of tone and intonation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/cbo9780511616983 Himmelmann, N. P. and Ladd, D. R. (2008). Prosodic description: An introduction for field workers. Language Documentation & Conservation, 2 (2), 244-274. Hosseini, A. (2014). The phonology and phonetics of prosodic prominence in Persian. (Doctoral dissertation). Tokyo University of Foreign Studies, Tokyo. Howell, P. and Kadi-Hanifi, K. (1991). Comparison of prosodic properties between read and

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Remarks on the Final-over-Final Condition: A View from Chinese Head-Final Structures


The paper discusses the universality of the final-over-final condition (FOFC). It has been proposed that sentence-final particles (SFPs) in Chinese may invalidate the universality of FOFC. This paper argues that the challenge from SFPs is inconclusive since the evidence for the head status of SFPs is lacking. On the other hand, the leftward complement of N0 in Chinese (Huang 2016) poses a greater threat to FOFC. However, it is argued that the violation is caused by a language-particular word order constraint due to Case directionality (Li 1990). Relating the syntactic FOFC violation to the word order constraint in compounds, it is proposed that FOFC may be understood as an instance of the shape conservation principle (Williams 2003), where the language-particular constraint is satisfied at the expense of a minimal violation of the universal condition.

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