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Determination of the Material Constants of Composite Materials on the Example of Modified Wood

Abstract

Homogenization is the transition from the level of microscopic heterogeneity to a homogeneous macroscopic level. The analysis of the value of equivalent parameters and their variability requires prior determination of the influence of microstructure on the values of these parameters [15]. Wood is a composite material and has a layered structure in the form of alternate layers of soft and hard wood. One of the main issues was the determination of constants materials of individual layers of natural wood and modified and then equivalent material constants of natural and modified wood. The material constants of single layers and the material constants of composite were determined on the basis of experimental studies. For this purpose, a homogenization method has been used to determine equivalent material constants on the basis of material constants of single layers of soft and hard wood [1, 2, 14]. A representative cell consisting of a softwood and hardwood layer has been isolated from the sample-measuring portion. On the basis of this cell have been developed mathematical model of equivalent material constants. A sample consisting of two layers was subjected to an even stretch in the direction of the axes x1, x2, x3. The equivalent material constants have been defined by using equilibrium conditions, geometric conditions, and Hooke’s generalized law. Each wood component on the micro-level is homogeneous, continuous with its constitutive equation, conservation laws, and boundary conditions at the boundary of the separation of components. The equivalent material constants of natural and modified wood have been determined using the homogenization method [12, 13]. The results obtained from the research and the results obtained from the calculations are very similar.

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Assessment Method of End-of-Life Vehicles Recycling Network Efficiency

International, Warszawa 2014. [10] Kaufman, S. M., Krishnan, N., Themelis, N. J., A screening life cycle metric to benchmark the environmental sustainability of waste management systems , Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 44, pp. 5949-5955, 2010. [11] Leu, H-G., Lin, S. H., Cost-benefit analysis of resource material recycling , Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Vol. 23, pp. 183-192, 1998. [12] Marques, R. C., Ferreira da Cruz, N., Carvalho, P., Assessing and exploring (in)efficiency in Portuguese recycling systems using non-parametric methods

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A Comparative Assessment of Operating Characteristics of a Diesel Engine Using 20% Proportion of Different Biodiesel Diesel Blend

combustion characteristics and performance of a direct injection engine fuelled with dio-diesel/diesel blends , Energy Conservation and Management, Vol. 51, pp. 2985-2992, 2010. [5] Murat Karabekts, GokhanErgena, Murat Hosoz, Effects of the blends containing low ratios of alternative fuels on the performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine , Fuel, Vol. 112, pp. 537-541, 2011. [6] Tesfa, B., Mishra, R., Zhang, C., Gu, F., Ball, A. D., Combustion and performance characteristics of CI (Compression ignition) engine running with bio-diesel , Energy

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