After the proclamation of the Republic of Latvia in 1918, Latvia experienced a rapid influx of youth into its capital city of Riga, looking to obtain education in universities. Students began to build their academic lives and student societies. In 1923, students of the Art Academy of Latvia founded the “Dzintarzeme” (“Amberland”) fraternity. The aim of “Dzintarzeme” was to unite nationally minded students of the Art Academy of Latvia and to promote the development of national art and self-education. Most “Dzintarzeme” members were faithful to the old masters and Latvian art. This phenomenon is significant, because “Dzintarzeme” members grew up with Latvian painting traditions, which are a remarkable heritage of interwar Latvia.
In 1940, when Latvia was occupied by the Soviet Union, “Dzintarzeme” was banned. A part of “Dzintarzeme” members were deported, killed in war, went missing, or stayed in the Latvian SSR; the remaining chose exile. Although scattered throughout the United States of America, Canada, and Australia, some members were able to rebuild and sustain the fraternity’s life, gathering its members, organising trips and anniversary art exhibitions.
The aim of this research is to reflect on “Dzintarzeme’s” activities in exile (1958–1987), focusing on the main factors of Latvian national art conservation policy: first, the ability of “Dzintarzeme’s” ideology to preserve the values of Latvian national art in an international environment, and second, the problem of generational change and the enrollment of young Latvian artists who continued to maintain “Dzintarzeme” values in exile.
Łukasz Damurski, Jacek Pluta, Karel Maier and Hans Thor Andersen
Dichotomy in Tirana: Socio-spatial Impact of Liberalism, European Planning Studies. 18(11), November 2010, p. 1837-1861.
Pawłowska, K. (2008). Przeciwdziałanie konfliktom wokół ochrony i kształtowania krajobrazu. Partycypacja społeczna, debata publiczna, negocjacje. [Preventing conflicts around conservation and landscape development. Social participation, public debate, negotiation] (Kraków: Politechnika Krakowska im T. Kościuszki).
Perry, C. (1998). The Neighbourhood Unit, a Scheme for Arrangement for the Family-Life Community (1929). Reprinted Routledge
Seadon J.K. (2010): Sustainable waste management systems. In: Journal of Cleaner Production , 18(16), 1639–1651. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2010.07.009
Sembiring, E. Nitivattananon, V. (2010): Sustainable solid waste management toward an inclusive society: Integration of the informal sector. In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling , 54(11), 802-809.DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2009.12.010
Scheinberg, A. Spies, S. Simpson, M.H. Mol, A.P . (2011): Assessing urban recycling in low-and middle-income countries: Building on
Aleksandra Lewandowska CDFMR and Adam Piasecki CDFMR
urban water use and performance evaluation of conservation practices using the Integrated Urban Water Model in São Paulo, Brazil (Doctoral dissertation, Colorado State University. Libraries). Available at: https://hdl.handle.net/10217/193176 DoA: 20.01.2019.
Batista G.D.G. 2018 Characterization of urban water use and performance evaluation of conservation practices using the Integrated Urban Water Model in São Paulo, Brazil (Doctoral dissertation, Colorado State University. Libraries) Available at https://hdl.handle.net/10217/193176 DoA: 20
, Vol. 32(2), pp. 349–356.
Makindi, S.M. (2016). Local Communities, Biodiversity Conservation and Ecotourism: A Case Study of the Kimana Community Wildlife Sanctuary, Kenya. In: African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure , Vol. 5(3), pp. 1–15.
Makoni, L. Tichaawa, T.M. (2017). Residents’ Perceptions and Attitudes Towards Urban Tourism Product Offerings in Harare, Zimbabwe. In: African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure , Vol. 6(4), pp. 1–15.
Mbaiwa, J.E. Stronza, A.L. (2011). Changes in Resident Attitudes Towards Tourism
Skrócone Studium Historyczno-Urbanistyczne. Wytyczne i Postulaty Konserwatorskie dla miasta Morąg (Abridged Historical and Urban Case Study. Conservation Guidelines and Recommendations for the town of Morąg – in Polish). (1993). Urząd Miasta Morąg. Morąg.
Thompson, C. W. (2002). Urban open space in the 21st century. In: Landscape and Urban Planning , (60)2, 59-72. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-2046(02)00059-2
Witaszek, Z. (2007). Miejsce i Rola Sondaży w Badaniu Opinii Społecznej (Place and role of surveys in public opinion research). In: Kitowski
Vladimir А. Usoltsev CDFMR, Agnieszka Piernik CDFMR, Anna A. Osmirko CDFMR, Ivan S. Tsepordey CDFMR, Viktor P. Chasovskikh CDFMR and Walery Zukow CDFMR
Luo T.Х. 1996 Patterns of biological production and its mathematical models for main forest types of China Ph.D. Dissertation Committee of Synthesis Investigation of Natural Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences Beijing 211 in Chinese with English abstract
Miao Z. and Li C. (2011). Predicting tree growth dynamics of boreal forest in response to climate change. In: C. Li et al. (eds.). Landscape Ecology in Forest Management and Conservation. Berlin, Heidelberg: Higher Education Press, Beijing and Springer-Verlag, 176-205. 10
relationship may also hold for soft tourist arrivals.
Since the launch of the World Heritage Convention in 1972, World Heritage sites have become increasingly popular. By 2015 more than 1,000 sites have received World Heritage status, including 228 natural and mixed sites. Conradin et al. (2015) present the results of a global survey of 128 of 211 World Natural Heritage (WNH) sites listed in 2011, and show that the understanding of WNH status has undergone great changes: from being perceived as an internationally valued instrument for fostering conservation, WNH status
Balčiūnas, Vaclovas. „Prie Vilniaus centro rekonstrukcijos projekto“ (The Project of the Reconstruction of Vilnius Center). Statyba ir architektūra, No. 6 (1973): 2.
Baliūnas, Vytautas. Panevėžio Juozo Balčikonio gimnazija (Panevėžys Juozas Balčikonis gymnasium). Panevėžys: Panevėžio spaustuvė, 1995.
Davies, Michael. „Design in the Historic Environment“. Building Conservation. Looked on March 10th 2017. http://www.buildingconservation.com/articles/design/design.htm.
decorațiilor murale de la biserica Mănăstirii Popăuți-Botoșani. In Monumentul, Tradiție şi viitor, Proceedings of the 5th edition, Iași: Trinitas.
6. Gavrilean, B. (2005). Intervențiile umane ca factor de degradare - studiu de caz la scena „Lepădarea lui Petru” din absida sudică a bisericii Mănăstirii Popăuți - Botoșani. In Monumentul, Tradiție şi viitor, Proceedings of the 6th edition. Iași: Trinitas.
7. Istudor, I. (2011). Noțiuni de chimia picturii (3rd edition), Art Conservation Support.
8. Melniciuc-Puică, N. (2001