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Conservative systems are based on less intense soil loosening, carried out by different methods, without turning the furrow and only in the conditions of keeping a certain amount of vegetal residues at the soil surface; for that reasons are therefore considered to be ecological protection strategies. For this study the parcel of 118.78 ha was divided into two plots of 59.39 ha each. On the first plot (P1) the conventional soil works system was used, while on the second plot (P2) was used the system of minimum soil works. The methodology used was to analyze, synthesize and calculation of fuel consumption. Following the application of soil conservation systems, many benefits have been identified: - the time with soil tillage is reduced at 2-4 times;-the fuel consumption per unit area is reduced by 40-50%;- the number of agricultural machinery at the surface unit is reduced;-soil structure is rebuilt and surface and depth compaction is reduced;- the organic matter content from the soil is increased;- soil permeability for water is increased and global soil drainage is improved;
Mihai Botu, Ion Botu, Gheorghe Achim, Silvia Preda, Anca Scutelnicu and Simona Giura
Conservation of fruit tree biodiversity is important for the mankind according to the Convention on Biological Diversity. In Romania, due to favorable environmental conditions, numerous genetic resources of plum, apple, walnut, hazelnut, sweet chestnut and other
fruit crops are present. Identification, evaluation and conservation of fruit genetic resources activities were launched in 1970’ in order to limit the loss of the biodiversity due to erosion and genetic vulnerability. Fruit Growing Research & Extension Station (SCDP) of Valcea, which is belonging now to the University of Craiova, was assigned to deal with conservation of genetic resources for the Prunus, Juglans, Corylus and Castanea genera. As result, national hazelnut collection, the sweet chestnut collection and a part of the plum and walnut national collections are located here. Genetic resources of Malus, Pyrus, Sambucus, Carya and Salix are hold in the active collections too. The ex situ collections include 1160 accessions, out of those 48 species, 533 cultivars and 565 other types like hybrids, biotypes, mutants, etc. Autochthonous or ‘original’ accessions include 173 local cultivars and 565 other genotypes. Breeding activity based on valuable germplasm conducted to releasing of a total number of 31 cultivars and 8 rootstocks registered in the Romanian Official Catalogue for Varieties, 15 varieties have been patented in Romania and for one by CPVO. Identification, in situ evaluation, collection, ex situ evaluation, propagation and regeneration activities regarding fruit tree genetic resources have to be continued in order to conserve the local fruit tree biodiversity and to value it through breeding and use of the new varieties in the orchards.
Narjes Zare, Mohammadreza Khaledian and Jean-Claude Mailhol
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D esmet P.J.J., G overs G