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. Sensitive, direct colorimetric assay for copper in serum. Clin Chem 1989;35:552-4. Barnett RN, Skodon SB, Goldberg MH. Performance of "kits" used for clinical chemical analysis of calcium in serum. Am J Clin Pathol 1973;59:836-45. Homsher R, Zak B. Spectrophotometric investigation of sensitive complexing agents for the determination of zinc in serum. Clin Chem 1985;31:1310-3. Zak B. Simple procedure for the single sample determination of serum copper and iron. Clin Chim Acta 1958;3:328-34. Schaller KH, Letzel S, Angree J. Handbook on metals in clinical chemistry

Abstract

Background: A highly contagious respiratory disease in canines is infectious tracheobronchitis or kennel cough characterized by inflammation of the upper respiratory tract. The cause of kennel cough has been associated with multiple or complex agents such as canine adeno virus (CAV), canine influenza virus (CIV), canine distemper virus (CDV), and canine para influenzavirus (CPIV). Objective: Study the prevalence of canine respiratory viruses detected from in Thailand during 2008-2009. Methods: Nasal swab samples collected from 102 healthy dogs and 109 dogs with respiratory diseases. Then CAV, CIV, CDV, and CPIV were detected by in-house nested PCR and further confirmed by nucleotide sequencing. Results: Nested PCR showed that primers designed and used in this study yielded high specificity without any non-specific amplification. The prevalence of CAV, CIV, CDV and CPIV in healthy dogs was 0%, 2.94%, 2.94%, and 0.98%, whereas that found in dogs with respiratory diseases was 9.17%, 1.83%, 2.75%, and 11.93%, respectively. In healthy dogs, co-infection with CPIV + CDV was detected in only 0.98%. On the other hand, dogs with respiratory symptoms showed multiple infections with CAV + CIV in 1.83%, CIV + CPIV in 0.92%, CAV + CPIV in 1.83%, and CAV + CDV + CPIV in 0.92%. Conclusion: The prevalence data obtained from this study may be useful for outbreak preventions and to raise awareness of potential transmission of the newly emerged canine influenza virus to humans.