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, 191 - 199. Jones P. W., William D. R.: Chemical speciation used to assess [S,S]-ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS) as a readily-biodegradable replacement for EDTA in radiochemical decontamination formulations, Applied Radiation and Isotopes , 2001 , 54, 587 - 593. Pitter P., Sykora V.: Biodegradability of ethylenediamine-based complexing agents and related compounds, Chemosphere , 2001 , 44, 823 - 826. Polska Norma PN-88/C-05561 - Badania tlenowej biodegradacji związków organicznych w środowisku wodnym w warunkach testu statycznego. Polska Norma PN-72/C-04550

-based complexing agents and related compounds, Chemosphere. 44, 823 - 826. Safety Data Sheet Dissolvine AZ, According to EC-Directive 2001/58/EC, 2005. NTA - Questions and Answers (1990). Retrived April, 28, 2008, from www.cefic.org/Templates/shwAssocDetails Van Ginkel, C.G., Geerst, R. & Ngyuen, P.D. (2005). Biodegradation of L-glutamatediacetate by mixed cultures and an isolate, A.C.S. symposium series 910, 183 - 194. Safety Data Sheet Dissolvine GL-38. (2005). According to EC-Directive 2001/58/EC. Akzo Nobel introduce a new biodegradable chelating agent (2007, February

. (2010). Copper removal by carbon nanomaterials bearing cyclam-functionalized silica. Cent. Eur. J. Chem . 8, 341–346. DOI: 10.2478/s11532-009-0131-y. 13. Kurczewska, J. &, Schroeder G. (2010). Silica surface modified by aliphatic amines as effective copper complexing agents. Inter. J. Mater. Res . 101, 1037–1041. DOI: 10.3139/146.110372. 14. Kurczewska, J. & Schroeder, G. (2010). Synthesis of silica chemically bonded with poly(ethylene oxide) 4-arm, amine-terminated for copper cation removal. Water Environ. Res . 82, 2387–2392. DOI: 10.2175/106143010X12780288628011

with microwave: Effect on coal properties. International J. 3, 016. 15. Wahab, A., Nawaz, S., Shahzad, K., Akhtar, J., Kanwal, S., Munir, S. & Sheikh, N. (2015) Desulfurization and demineralization of Lakhra coal by molten caustic leaching. Energy Sources Part A 37(11), 1219. 10.1080/15567036.2013.837547 10.1080/15567036.2013.837547. 16. Pecina, E., Rendón, N., Dávalos, A., Carrillo, F. & Martínez, D. (2014) Evaluation of Process Parameters of Coal Desulfurization in Presence of H2O2 and Complexing Agents. Int. J. Coal Prep. Util. 34(2), 85. DOI: 10.1016/S0016- 2361

modifi ed by aliphatic amines as effective copper complexing agents, Int. J. Mat. Res. , 101, 1037. DOI: 10.3139/146.110372. 10.3139/146.110372 27. Kurczewska, J. & Schroeder, G. (2010). Synthesis of silica chemically bonded with poly(ethylene oxide) 4-arm, amine terminated for copper cation removal, Water Environ. Res ., 82, 2387. 10.2175/106143010X12780288628011. 28. Grzesiak, P., Łukaszyk, J., Grobela, M., Motała, R., Schroeder, G. & Kurczewska, J. (2013). The binding of in dustrial deposits of heavy metals and arsenic in the soil by 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane

.1016/j.apcata.2008.05.017. Santos, A., Yustos, P., Quintanilla, A., Ruiz, G. & Garcia-Ochoa, F. (2005). Study of the copper leaching in the wet oxidation of phenol with Cu-Based catalysts: Cause and effects. Appl. Catal. B , 61, 323-333, DOI:10.1016/j.apcatb.2005.06.006. Limson, J. & Nyokong, T. (1997). Substituted catechol as complexing agents for determination of bismuth, lead, copper and cadmium by adsorptive stripping voltametry. Analyt. Chim. Acta , 344, 87-95, DOI:10.1016/S0003-2670(96)00585-5. Sotelo, J.L., Ovejero, G., Martínez, F., Melero, J.A. & Milieni, A

Abstract

A rapid, inexpensive and practical solidified of floating organic droplet microextraction (SFODME) prior to electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) was proposed for lead (Pb) determination in herb samples. For SFODME procedure, 1-(2-pysidylazo)-2-naphthol was used as a complexing agent. Analytical parameters influencing the extraction efficiency, i.e. types and volume of extracting solvent, concentration of 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol, pH, extraction temperature and time were optimized. Under the optimized conditions, LOD and LOQ were 0.064 and 0.214 μg L−1, respectively, and an enrichment factor was achieved at 18.71 with the relative standard deviation ranging from 1.3 to 2.5% (n=6). The proposed method was effectively applied to the determination of lead in Spinach leaves (SRM-1570a) and Thai herb samples with acceptable results.

Abstract

The concentration of Eu(III) cations in model aqueous solutions can be quantified by means of Arsenazo III reagent. Absorbance of the solution was measured at the wavelength λmax = 655 nm. Molar absorptivity reached the value ε655 = 5.5±0.2 · 104 cm-1 mol-1 · dm3. Beer's law was obeyed in the range from 0 to 2 mg · dm-3 Eu(III). The value of limit of detection was established by application of 3σ approach and reached the value of 20.9 μg · dm-3. Repeatability of analysis expressed by relative standard deviation does not exceed the value of ± 8% and apparent recovery lay in acceptable range from 91 to 106 %. Stoichiometry between Eu(III) and Arsenazo III in media of relevant solution was 1:1. The absorbance of the solutions within the linear range of the proposed method maintained a constant value for 60 minutes. Described procedure can be utilized to determination of Eu(III) concentration in real samples, but it is necessary eliminate interfering ions. Cations like La(III), Sm(III), Th(IV), U(VI) and complexing agent EDTA cause significant error at the determination of Eu(III) in model solution. Presented spectrophotometric method could be applied for the determination of europium in the minerals and water samples, however after a suitable separation and preconcentration of target analyte.