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Abstract

As the rotor configuration has the most impact on helicopter properties, the process of determination the assumptions for rotor design is a very important factor in the early stage of rotorcraft development. The following paper presents a mechanical analysis process used at the Institute of Aviation to quickly develop a coaxial rotor prototype applicable in ultra-light unmanned helicopter which has the potential for further improvement of its flight parameters. The article describes the rotor analysis process due to its feasibility based on commercially available solutions, the process of formulating assumptions for the entire structure, MES analysis of the rotor parts all leading to creation of the rotor prototype.

Abstract

Simulation results concerning performance of helicopter suitable for high-mountain rescue operations are presented. Including operations in regions of the highest Himalaya Mountains, the possibility of hover ceiling out of ground effect (OGE) at 10,000 m above sea level is assumed. Demand of high ratio of developed lift to power required for hover leads to choice the coaxial rotor configuration as the best for rescue helicopter, which can operate in extremely high mountain environment, and gives good stability features in wind gust conditions in comparison with single main rotor helicopter. For performance calculations the simple model of helicopter is applied, which consists of fuselage point mass and rotor disk. The cases of partial and total power loss are considered to define range of H-V zones and possibilities of flight continuation due to height of landing surface over level of sea. The rotor blades and rotor loads are calculated applying detail model of elastic blade, which includes effects of its deflections due to out-of-plane bending, in plane bending, and torsion. The Runge-Kutta method is applied to solve equations of motion of rotor blades with taken into account effects of blade pitch control and variable deflections of blades. According to Galerkin method, the blade parameters of motion are treated as a combination of torsion and bending eigen modes of the rotor blades. Elastic blade model allows defining behaviour rotor blades in selected states of flight: hover, level flight, wind gust conditions, and pull-up manoeuvre. The results of simulation for upper and lower rotor for blade deflections and loads are shown in form of time-run plots and rotor disk distributions. The simulation investigation may be applied to define features of helicopter configuration suitable for operation in extremely high mountain conditions.