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Is there a cost at encoding words with joined letters during visual word recognition?

Abstract

For simplicity, models of visual-word recognition have focused on printed words composed of separated letters, thus overlooking the processing of cursive words. Manso de Zuniga, Humphreys, and Evett (1991) claimed that there is an early “cursive normalization” encoding stage when processing written words with joined letters. To test this claim, we conducted a lexical decision experiment in which words were presented either with separated or joined letters. To examine if the cost of letter segmentation occurs early in processing, we also manipulated a factor (i.e., word-frequency) that is posited to affect subsequent lexical processing. Results showed faster response times for the words composed of separated letters than for the words composed of joined letters. This effect occurred similarly for low- and high-frequency words. Thus, the present data offer some empirical support to Manso de Zuniga et al.’s (1991) idea of an early “cursive normalization” stage when processing joined-letters words. This pattern of data can be used to constrain the mapping of the visual input into letter and word units in future versions of models of visual word recognition.

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The effects of Guarana (Paullinia cupana) supplementation on the cognitive performance of young healthy adults – a Systematic Review

al. (2004) tend to support the claim that cognitive enhancing effects of guarana are not solely attributed to the caffeine content of the herb, but to other compounds as well. These two studies report that guarana interventions with low doses of caffeine provided significant improvements in certain cognitive domains. Results of Low Risk of Bias Studies In this section of the results, we present the findings of studies with a relatively low risk of bias. Studies included in this section of the results needed to have at least 4/7 ‘low risk’ of bias grades at

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Can reading too much make me run mad? Exploring students’ assumptions and academic performance

of Nursing The majority (95.1% [116/122]) of the respondents had heard of the term ‘madness’ prior to their participation in the study, only 1 (0.8%) reported that they were not sure if they had ever heard of the term, and 5 (4.1%) reported that they had never heard of it. The two most popular sources of information on madness among those respondents who claimed awareness of madness were ‘book’ (61.2% [71/116]) and ‘doctor’ (44.8% [52/116]) ( Figure 1 ). Figure 1 Sources of information on madness among those respondents that claimed awareness of

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How to write a scientific paper: A hypothesis-based approach

substantially contributed or helped with different aspects of the paper such as providing material or helping with the literature search but do not qualify for full authorship. Authorship would indicate that authors have contributed in all aspects and stages of the study, and can claim scientific responsibility and can support its scientific validity. Role of the references The reference list should be compiled in line with the authors’ instructions of the journal for which the publication is intended. Literature that is relevant, necessary and sufficient to understand

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Current challenges of suicide and future directions of management in Bangladesh: a systematic review

suicide ( Arafat 2017 ). Reliable and meticulous source of suicide data is out of reach for the researchers, policy maker as well as other individuals. Moreover, as per the legal system, it is still a punishable criminal offence that generates a natural tendency to hide the suicides. Channelising suicide as accidental death is somewhat a common phenomenon to avoid the aversive legal consequences, because mostly people have been harassed by the legal agencies instead of getting trails for suicidal events. Sometimes, relatives claim suicides as homicides without any firm

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Increased Risk of Attempted and Completed Suicide in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: A Systematic Review of Follow-up Studies

number of previous suicide attempts was found to be lower than that of other patients with mental disorders ( Apter et al. (2003) . However, such claims are based on cross sectional and retrospective studies that are prone to selection and awareness bias. Sadly, there are no follow up studies that have included different psychiatric disorders including OCD and would allow a relevant valid comparison. Risk factors for suicidality in OCD Psychiatric comorbidity seems to be the most common risk factor for attempted and completed suicide. According to Fernandez de la

Open access
Football does not improve mental health: a systematic review on football and mental health disorders

of playing but the ability or inability to find successful coping strategies to the stress this generates that may be at the heart of the findings of this study. The study has the advantage that it assessed local concepts of mental health in post-war Uganda, but, on the other hand, it makes comparisons with future studies in other countries difficult if not impossible. As a summary, the general claim that playing soccer improves mental health and well-being in non-professionals must be challenged before relevant studies can provide the necessary positive evidence

Open access
Revealing the Reasons Leading to Students' Drop-Out at the College of Dunaújváros

Abstract

In the strategy 'Europe 2020', EU claimed the aims to increase the ratio of graduates among 30-34-year old people, which means the expansion of the number of students in higher education as well as the decrease of dropouts. This double purpose is considered to be a big challenge both for countries and for higher educational institutes. It could be stated that parallel with the increase of higher education enrolment, supporting students who have already been admitted to higher education must be emphasized so that they could absolve their subject and take their degree.

Open access
Development of Walking and Self-sufficiency Ability Related to Nutrition among People with Down Syndrome

Abstract

Development of the walking ability and self-care of patients with Down syndrome is affected by their body weight determining their lifestyle to a great extent. Objectives: The study aimed at the determination of body mass index for persons living in residential institutions and families, exploration its impact on walking and self-care as two, objective factors of life quality. Method: Data collection of persons aged 3-35 with Down syndrome living in families covered seven counties, while those of living in residential institutions covered thirteen counties in Hungary. In the 183 cases studied 76 people in residential institutions, 107 people lived in families. The cross-sectional study was processed by non-random sample selection. The questionnaires were filled out by health visitors and care takers edited by their own. Results: 50.6% of adults and 26.1% of children belonged to the overweight or obese category. Their residence showed a significant correlation with the body mass index (p< 0.001). Overweight and obese persons in families, while thin ones were more prevalent in institutions. Regarding the walking ability and self-care of the persons living in families a significantly higher level of development was achieved (p< 0.001). Walking ability (p = 0.001) and self-care (p = 0,008) were worsened by less body weight significantly, while overweight or obesity influenced it less negatively. Discussion: The claim is not further acceptable whereas persons with Down syndrome are more prone to obesity than average people. However unfavourable weight gain in adults draws attention to the necessity to a healthy diet and regular exercise. The people living in residential institutions with significantly lower body mass index and the associated low development of walking ability and self-care envisages an urgent reform of residential institutions. Life in the institutions negatively affects the walking ability and self-care, and thus significantly reduces the quality of life of persons with Down's syndrome.

Open access