). Those factors have created ‘a reality in which living in a block of flats was a dream for the majority of Poles, regardless of their social status’ ( Lewicka 2004 in Szafrańska 2014 ), and narratives of the informants confirm these claims.
‘Before she got this apartment where I live now, my grandmother used to live in a village. They had no sewage, no central heating but I honestly think she exaggerated about no electricity. Moving to the new apartment with the balcony and central heating system, for her, was a paradise. My grandpa, however, never liked it and I
of local democracy as well as a way to improve the legitimacy of decisions leading to more socially acceptable and sustainable planning outcomes.
The principal of public participation in planning is generally accepted in most Western countries ( Caves 1992 ; Curry 2012 ; Pawlowska 2018 ) yet, in marked contrast to the rhetoric of public participation, concerns have been voiced over the effectiveness of the process in practice (Cook & Kathari 2001). As M. Aitken (2010: 249) observed, ‘projects or decision making processes which make claims to being participatory
Pascal Krauthausen, Michael Leitner, Alina Ristea and Andrew Curtis
effects on the society, has been carried out by many disciplines, including sociology, anthropology, architecture, geography, psychology, criminology, arts, urban planning, and others. In general, opinions among researchers are divided, whether the application of graffiti should be viewed as an art or as a crime. For example, G. C. Stowers (1997) claims graffiti to be an art form. In contrast, M. Halsey & A. Young (2002 : 165) associate graffiti with the aspect of vandalism and define graffiti as ‘both art and crime’, and G. Vanderveen & G. Van Eijk (2015) consider
evaluation. This contribution can positively stimulate sponsors and practitioners to transfer and replicate the methodology to other participatory processes and other contexts. In line with the claim for the systematisation of methods of evaluation of citizen participation, this article is intended to contribute to making progress towards the establishment of a theory of ‘what works best when’ or, at least, an approximate attempt at that.
Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia (SFRH/BPD/109406/2015); Department of Local Housing and Development of
Bank involvement in transport delivery, in 2015, National Treasury’s City Support Program, a unit of Treasury tasked with accelerating decentralization and devolution, signed a RAS to last for 5 years (interview 11, Washington DC, 12/2015). Bank officials understand their responsibility as distinct from ITDP or Embarq, agencies they describe as having a pivotal agenda to push BRT, instead calling their assistance a form of ‘unbiased support’. They claim that South Africa ‘knew that the World Bank had some technical expertise from our prior visits there and they knew
seems to be free of any ideology. The authors of the McKinsey report compare Smart Cities’ tools to Adam Smith’s ‘invisible hand’ claiming that thanks to numerous individual decisions aiming at maximising personal benefits and based on the data provided by smart tools, the city can significantly improve its functioning as well as, and in consequence, the quality of life ( McKinsey Global Institute 2018 : 1). Just like the free market, the Smart City transforms individual benefits into benefits and positive change for all. Yet, in a similar manner to the free market
The focus of the following article will be New Urbanism, an urbanistic movement which originated in the United States and advocates the establishment and reinforcing of communities through planning activities. Its proponents claim that the proper design of space leads to the development of a local community. As K. Falconer Al-Hindi and K. Till (2001: 189) observe, ‘New Urbanism is a complex planning paradigm and social movement that has recently become influential in planning, residential development, and government housing circles’. K. Day (2003: 83) adds that
Climate change may have severe consequences for urban areas and many cities, such as those situated on deltas, are already threatened. The paper claims that the solution for endangered areas is the embedding of urban climate resilience. The concept of resilience is put forward to bring a broad perspective to a city with an indication that the city is a complex system with developed relations, both inward and outward. Social and institutional aspects of these relations are highlighted as they have the highest potential to make the city resilient. The paper indicates three fundamental features of embedding the resilience of urban areas to climate change: network building, a strategic approach and implementing urban projects. A practical application of these fundamental features is evaluated using the case study of Rotterdam. The research shows the reliability of these bases and indicates key characteristics of each fundamental feature: the network should be multidimensional with solid institutional and interpersonal relations, the strategy should have a holistic approach and project implementation needs the engagement of all the city actors.
A wide range of research claims inclusionary housing is aimed at increasing affordability and encouraging social inclusion in communities. Inclusionary housing generates affordable housing for the low and middle income bracket. Inclusionary zoning enhances social inclusion, depending on the various design components of its programmes ( Schwartz et al. 2012 ). This also ensures that segregation and the concentration of poverty are avoided, and the social mix and social cohesion are improved. Inclusionary zoning is intended to reduce economic segregation by
claim that trust is the most important condition of success.
Often, reacting to the difficulties and controversies around a specific project, public authorities organise a so-called meeting with locals. One must not be deluded that such a spontaneous meeting, organised in a familiar yet unprofessional way, can end in success. On the contrary, it can end in a fiasco, if not be at the origin of conflicts or aggravate them. Participation is a multiphase process that calls for plenty of time and money, although thanks to the Internet and so-called e-participation, for