Jelena Torić, Ana Karković Marković, Cvijeta Jakobušić Brala and Monika Barbarić
list of permitted health claims made on foods, other than those referring to the reduction of disease risk and to children’s development and health Text with EEA relevance, (n.d.) 40.
31. J. A. Menendez, A. Vazquez-Martin, R. Colomer, J. Brunet, A. Carrasco-Pancorbo, R. Garcia-Villalba, A. Fernandez-Gutierrez and A. Segura-Carretero, Olive oil’s bitter principle reverses acquired autoresistance to trastuzumab (Herceptin TM ) in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells, BMC Cancer 7 (2007); https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2407-7-80
32. J. Ferlay, I
35 years of education in clinical pharmacology at the Faculty of Pharmacy in Comenius University
Clinical pharmacology has been recognized as both an academic as well as healthcare specialty in all developed countries. For all healthcare providers using drugs, clinical pharmacology showed the way to apply the principles of pharmacology in a variety of individual circumstances in patients with the intent to maximize the benefits and minimize the risks of pharmacotherapy. This situation led to the introduction of clinical pharmacology to the curriculum of pharmaceutical study at the Faculty of Pharmacy, CU, in Bratislava in the academic year 1973/74. The development of the content of the study plan in clinical pharmacology is discussed in this paper. The author's claim, proven by multiple independent research studies, is that clinical pharmacology is the most complete, easiest to use and most objective drug information base for solutions to pharmacotherapy problems today.
I. Malovecká, K. Papargyris, D. Mináriková, V. Foltán and A. Jankovská
 Bush J, Langley CA, Wilson KA. The corporatization of community pharmacy: Implications for service provision, the public health function, and pharmacy’s claims to professional status in the United Kingdom. Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy, 5(4), 2009, 305-318.
 McMillan SS, Wheeler AJ, Sav A, King MA, Whitty JA, Kendall E, Kell F. Community pharmacy in Australia: A health hub destination of the future. Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy, 9(6), 2013, 863-875.
 Keast SL, Jacobs E, Harrison D, Farmer
. Mueller, M. Pfannkuche, F. Verheyen, R. Linder, U. Maywald, T. Kohlmann, Y. S. Feng, G. Breithardt and R. Bauersachs, Oral anticoagulation use by patients with atrial fibrillation in Germany. Adherence to guidelines, causes of anticoagulation under-use and its clinical outcomes, based on claims-data of 183,448 patients, Thromb. Haemost. 107 (2012) 1053–1065; DOI: 10.1160/TH11-11-0768.
15. T. C. Sarich, J. H. Seltzer, S. D. Berkowitz, J. Costin, J. T. Curnutte, C. M. Gibson, M. Hoffman, E. Kaminskas, M. W. Krucoff, J. H. Levy, P. D. Mintz, P. A. Reilly, P. T
Kráľová E., Jankyová S., Pekárik A., Čuboň J. and Stankovičová T.
] Kinsel JF, Straus SE: Complementary and alternative therpaeutics: rigorous research is needed to support claims. In Annual review of pharmacology and toxicology. 2003; 43: 463-484.
 Kitabchi AE, Wall BM: Diabetic ketoacidosis. Med Clin North Am. 1995;79: 9-37.
 Klimas J, Kmecova J, Jankyova S, Yaghi D, Priesolova E., Kyselova Z, Musil P, Ochodnicky P, Krenek P, Kyselovic J, Matyas S: PycnogenolR Improves Left Ventricular Function in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Cardiomyopathy in Rats.Phytother Res. 2010; 24: 969
Izabela Korona-Glowniak, Radoslaw Siwiec, Iwona Luszczewska-Sierakowska, Ryszard Maciejewski, Rafal Wrobel and Anna Malm
). Pediatria Polska 2002; LXXVII: 941-4.
12. Szajewska H, Fordymacka A, Bardowski J, Górecki RK, Mrukowicz JZ, Banaszkiewicz A. Microbiological and genetic analysis of probiotic products licensed for medicinal purposes. Med Sci Monit 2004;10:346-50.
13. Aureli P, Fiore A, Scalfaro C, Casale M, Franciosa G. National survey outcomes on commercial probiotic food supplements in Italy. Int J Food Microbiol . 2010;137:265-7.
14. Drisko J, Bischoff B, Giles C, Adelson M, Rao RV, McCallum R. Evaluation of five probiotic products for label claims by DNA
Zlatina I. Ivanova, Nikolay H. Kyuchukov, Iliya I. Krachunov, Nikolay A. Yanev, Pavlina Ts. Glogovska, Plamen S. Pavlov, Tsanya P. Popova, Vasil V. Todorov and Yavor Y. Ivanov
The study aimed to assess the inhalation technique of patients with bronchial asthma/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) via an objective method and to evaluate the effect of training in patients with incorrect technique. Тhe inhalation technique of 120 patients with obstructive pulmonary disease was tested. The patients were divided into two groups: using metered dose inhalers (MDI) - 34 patients (28%) and dry powered inhalers (DPI) - 86 patients (72%). The most frequent mistakes in the MDIgroup were short duration of the inhalation (55.88%) and bad synchronization between activating the canister and the inhalation (29.41%). For the DPIgroup, the inhalation was not forceful enough (48.84%) and the short duration of the inhalation (12.79%). Patients claiming to have good inhalation technique accounted for 97%of those in the MDIgroup, and 96.5%of those in the DPIgroup. There were two patients (5.88%) with correct inhalation technique in the MDIgroup at their first attempt, and 31 patients (36.05%) in the DPIgroup. We found that in the MDIgroup there wasasignificant reduction in the number of mistakes (p<0.001). In the DPIgroup, such correlation was not found but during visit 2 there were no patients with more than 1 mistake. Correcting poor inhalation technique led to reduction of the number of mistakes during inhalation.
Ewa Dudzinska, Kinga Szymona, Anna Pacian and Teresa Kulik
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a condition of multiple origins. It is characterised by a range of behaviour patterns, in addition to disturbed social and emotional functioning. Of note, early therapy is conducive to better treatment results. A few recently discussed therapies have a particularly positive impact on children with ASD. Corbett et al.  proposed Sense Theatre. This involves instilling appropriate behaviours and communication patterns into the afflicted individual through acting. Role-playing and other similar techniques also offer an opportunity for children with ASD to improve their areas of empathy and social cooperation. With regard to bio-feedback-related techniques, Friedrich et al.  was noted for developing the Brain-computer method, a system of game interface connected to an external device. The method targets the mirror neuron system (MNS) in order to enhance cognitive, emotional and behavioural functions through neurofeedback. An approach put forward by Solomon et al.  is called ‘Play and Language for Autistic Youngsters (PLAY) Project Home Consultation’. Herein, volunteers visit patients’ homes on a regular basis to engage the children in play and games, after which they discuss with parents, the issues that came up. The PLAY reduces guardians’ stress levels and improves children’s skills. A pharmacological method is that of administering sulphoraphane , which reduces damaging effects. As others claim [8,1,7], other dietary approaches prove efficient as well. In summation, an early intervention and the employment of a multimodal treatment approach can be of importance for enhancing the life of ASD-affected children.
Aneta Gerhant, Maciej Słotwiński, Olga Hołownia, Ewa Stelmach and Marcin Olajossy
Objective. The study is the second part of the literature review on hyponatremia in patients with diagnosed mental disorders. This article focuses on psychogenic polydipsia as, along with the SIADH, one of the two most common causes of hyponatremia in the mentioned group of patients.
Method: The literature review was based on searching the Medline, the Google Scholar and the Ebsco databases in Polish and English by entering the following phrases: psychogenic polydipsia, the psychosis – intermittent hyponatremia – polydipsia syndrome, water intoxication.
Discussion: Psychogenic polydipsia occurs in up to 25% of patients treated for mental disorders. It most frequently concerns patients with schizophrenia. 30% of patients with psychogenic polydipsia suffer from hyponatremia with or without symptoms of water intoxication. In the etiology of psychogenic polydipsia, the influence of dopaminergic and noradrenergic neurotransmission has been considered, as well as angiotensin, which is claimed to have dipsogenic properties. In order to reduce the severity of the disorder, attempts have been made to administer the following groups of medications: β-blockers, opioid receptor antagonists, angiotensin convertase inhibitors and angiotensin receptor antagonists. Other methods include replacing classic antipsychotic drugs with clozapine. There are also reports of a reduced severity of polydipsia with hyponatremia after introducing risperidone and olanzapine. Preventing episodes of water intoxication in patients with psychogenic polydipsia requires the monitoring of their body weight and a suitable reduction of fluid intake by them.
Results: Mentally ill patients, especially those with chronic schizophrenia, should be monitored for psychogenic polydipsia and the concomitant hyponatremia.