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Uniform Distribution of the Sequence of Balancing Numbers Modulo m

Abstract

The balancing numbers and the balancers were introduced by Behera et al. in the year 1999, which were obtained from a simple diophantine equation. The goal of this paper is to investigate the moduli for which all the residues appear with equal frequency with a single period in the sequence of balancing numbers. Also, it is claimed that, the balancing numbers are uniformly distributed modulo 2, and this holds for all other powers of 2 as well. Further, it is shown that the balancing numbers are not uniformly distributed over odd primes.

Open access
A Strong Law for the Size of Yule M-Oriented Recursive Trees

. Algorithms, 31 (2007), 273-287. J. L. Gastwirth, P. K. Bhattacharya, Two probability models of pyramids or chain letter schemes demonstrating that their promotional claims are unreliable. Operations Research, 32 (1984), 527-536. H. Mahmoud, R. T. Smythe, A survey of recursive trees, Theory Probab. Math. Statist., 51 (1995), 1-27. S. M. Ross, Stochastic processes, Wiley, New York, 1983.

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Performance improvement of using lambda expressions with new features of Java 8 vs. other possible variants of iterating over ArrayList in Java

Abstract

A fluent programming is the programming technique where operations return a value that allows the invocation of another operation. With the fluent programming, it is perfectly natural to end up with one huge statement that is the concatenation of as many operations as you like. The Java Development Kit (JDK) streams (added in Java 8) are designed to support fluent programming. Instead of looping over all elements in the sequence repeatedly (once for filter, then again for map, and eventually for toArray), the chain of filtermapper-collector can be applied to each element in just one pass over the sequence. In this context, we often encounter lambda expressions used to create locally defined anonymous functions. They provide a clear and concise way to represent one method interface using an expression. Oracle claims that use of lambda expressions also improve the collection libraries making it easier to iterate through, filter, and extract data from a collection. In addition, new concurrency features improve performance in multicore environments.

There are multiple ways to traverse, iterate, or loop collection in Java. Therefore, to solve one problem, we have several options for solutions that differ by undeniably increasing of the code readability. Searching for answers to the question of whether these new features really bring performance benefits over conventional way, is the subject of this paper.

Open access
Reichenbach’s Paradise
Constructing the Realm of Probabilstic Common “Causes”
Open access
Impact Of Modernization On Religious Institution: A Case Study Of Khyber Pakhtun Khwa, Pakistan

Abstract

Religion is a unified system of sacred norms, values, beliefs and objects. In any society religion plays an important role in the shaping of the people’s lives, behaviour and interactions. In every aspect of life people consult with their religion and act according to the teachings of religion. At present modernization, globalization and social change are creating very drastic changes in every sphere of life. These changes have both negative and positive impacts on the society. Modernisation is also creating very serious changes in the social institution of religion. In Pakistan, modernization have very severe impact on religion and many sub-sects have been created under the religion of Islam. Each and every sect is claiming that their teachings are true. This phenomenon is crating sectarian violence in Pakistani society. Present study was conducted in the province of “Khyber Pakhtun Khwa, Pakistan”. Pakhtun people follow religion strictly in every segment of life. They sacrifices their lives on the name of Islam. But at present due to modernization, this phenomenon has been changed. Main objective of this study was to analyze the major impacts of modernisation on the religion of Islam in “Pakhtun” culture and society.

Open access
Christian Resistance to Gay-Proselytism in a Secular Nigeria: Anathema or Social Heroism?

Abstract

The criminalization of homosexuality in Nigeria has partially been inspired and acclaimed by a number of religious schools of thought, including Christian opinion leaders. Such an influence of religion on politics has been seriously questioned. Using observations and literary sources, this paper underlines the unconstitutionality of Christian antigay proselytism at the political sphere of the Nigerian State, anchoring its claim on the constitutional provision stipulating the secular character of Nigeria. It however interprets such a move (the “influential” Christian anti-gay proselytism) as an inevitable expression of the religious character of Nigeria’s social and cultural spheres. Furthermore, the paper argues that the Nigerian Federation is “fully secular” only on paper and not in practice. Secularity is partially observed at the political sphere of the State. Religion and populism continue to shape major socio-political schemes (as seen in the criminalization of homosexuality in Nigeria). With such a socio-political influence of religion, legislative projects such as the Same-Sex Marriage (Prohibition) Act and political strategies such as the Nigerian Government’s resistance against western gay-proselytism can only be massively celebrated. In line with this, (Christian) anti-gay proselytism at the Nigeria’s political sphere is logically viewed less as an anathema, and more as socio-political heroism.

Open access