In this paper it has been argued that the theory of conceptual maps developed recently by Paul M. Churchland provides support for Wittgenstein’s claim that language is a tool for acting in the world. The role of language is to coordinate and shape the conceptual maps of the members of the given language community, reducing the cross-individual cognitive idiosyncrasies and paving the way for joint cognitive enterprises. Moreover, Churchland’s theory also explains our tendency to speak of language as consisting of concepts which correspond to things we encounter in the world. The puzzle of common sense reference is no longer a puzzle: while at the fundamental level language remains a tool for orchestrating conceptual maps, the fact that the maps encode some communally shared categorization of experience fuels our talk of concepts capturing the essences of things, natural kinds, prototypes, etc.
Among the philosophers and the educated audience the name of Sir Karl Popper is usually associated with the critical method, evolutionary epistemology, falsification as a criterion for the demarcation of scientific knowledge, the concept of the third world and with his dislike to dialectics and contradictions. This article is aimed to show in what way all these things are connected in the evolutionary researches of the philosopher and the new conceptions, which he contributed to studying the mechanisms of evolution. Also there is an attempt to comprehend the evolutionary views of Popper, test them for falsification, relate his epistemology with his claims, which he puts forward to the theory of objective knowledge evolution and show the obvious contradiction between them.
The paper discusses the concept of adequacy central for Pertażycki’s methodology. According to Petrażycki any valuable scientific theory should be adequate, that is, neither limping (to broad with respect its actual scope) nor jumping (too narrow with respect to its actual scope). Consequently, adequacy of a theory is a stronger condition than its truth. Every adequacy theory is true, but not conversely. However, there is problem, because scientific laws are conditionals (implications). This suggests that adequacy is too strong conditions, because the consequence of an implication has a wider scope than its antecedent. Thus, laws should have the form of equivalence. The paper shows how model-theoretic characterization of theories allows to recognize truth and adequacy, consistently with Petrażycki’s claims.
. Algorithms, 31 (2007), 273-287.
J. L. Gastwirth, P. K. Bhattacharya, Two probability models of pyramids or chain letter schemes demonstrating that their promotional claims are unreliable. Operations Research, 32 (1984), 527-536.
H. Mahmoud, R. T. Smythe, A survey of recursive trees, Theory Probab. Math. Statist., 51 (1995), 1-27.
S. M. Ross, Stochastic processes, Wiley, New York, 1983.
A fluent programming is the programming technique where operations return a value that allows the invocation of another operation. With the fluent programming, it is perfectly natural to end up with one huge statement that is the concatenation of as many operations as you like. The Java Development Kit (JDK) streams (added in Java 8) are designed to support fluent programming. Instead of looping over all elements in the sequence repeatedly (once for filter, then again for map, and eventually for toArray), the chain of filtermapper-collector can be applied to each element in just one pass over the sequence. In this context, we often encounter lambda expressions used to create locally defined anonymous functions. They provide a clear and concise way to represent one method interface using an expression. Oracle claims that use of lambda expressions also improve the collection libraries making it easier to iterate through, filter, and extract data from a collection. In addition, new concurrency features improve performance in multicore environments.
There are multiple ways to traverse, iterate, or loop collection in Java. Therefore, to solve one problem, we have several options for solutions that differ by undeniably increasing of the code readability. Searching for answers to the question of whether these new features really bring performance benefits over conventional way, is the subject of this paper.
The logical reasoning first appeared within the Babylonian legal tradition established by the Sumerians in the law codes which were first over the world: Ur-Nammu (ca. 2047 – 2030 B.C.); Lipit-Ishtar (ca. 1900 – 1850 B.C.), and later by their successors, the Akkadians: Hammurabi (1728 – 1686 B.C.). In these codes the casuistic law formulation began first to be used: “If/when (Akkadian: šumma) this or that occurs, this or that must be done” allowed the Akkadians to build up a theory of logical connectives: “... or…”, “… and…”, “if…, then…”, “not…” that must have been applied in their jurisprudence. So, a trial decision looked like an inference by modus pones and modus tollens or by other logical rules from (i) some facts and (ii) an appropriate article in the law code represented by an ever true implication. The law code was announced by erecting a stele with the code or by engraving the code on a stone wall. It was considered a set of axioms announced for all. Then the trial decisions are regarded as claims logically inferred from the law code on the stones. The only law code of the Greeks that was excavated is the Code of Gortyn (Crete, the 5th century B.C.). It is so similar to the Babylonian codes by its law formulations; therefore, we can suppose that the Greeks developed their codes under a direct influence of the Semitic legal tradition: the code was represented as the words of the stele and the court was a logic application from these words. In this way the Greek logic was established within a Babylonian legal tradition, as well. Hence, we can conclude that, first, logic appeared in Babylonia and, second, it appeared within a unique legal tradition where all trial decisions must have been transparent, obvious, and provable. The symbolic logic appeared first not in Greece, but in Mesopotamia and this tradition was grounded in the Sumerian/Akkadian jurisprudence.
16. Dawes, G.W., Jong, J. Defeating the Christian's Claim to Warrant. Philo, 15, 2013, pp. 127-44.
17. Dawes, G.W., Maclaurin, J. A New Science of Religion, Routledge: London, 2012.
18. De Cruz, H., De Smedt, J. A Natural History of Natural Theology. The Cognitive Science of Theology and Philosophy of Religion. MIT Press: Cambridge (MA) London, 2015.
19. Foster, J. A. The Immaterial Self: A Defense of the Cartesian Dualist Conception of Mind. Routledge: London, 1991.
20. Granqvist, P., Kirkpatrick, L
. Binswanger, H. How We Know . New York: TOF Publications, 2014.
9. Block, W. E. A Comment on ‘The Extraordinary Claim of Praxeology,’ by Professor Gutierrez, Theory and Decision , Vol. 3, No. 4, June, 1973, pp. 377-387.
10. Block, W. E. On Robert Nozick’s ‘On Austrian Methodology,’ Inquiry , Vol. 23, No. 4, Fall, 1980, pp.397-444. Spanish translation, Libertas , Vol. 14, No. 26, May, 1997, pp. 71-131.
11. Block, W. E. Austrian Theorizing, Recalling the Foundations: Reply to Caplan, Quarterly Journal of Austrian Economics , Vol. 2, No. 4, 1999, pp. 21