-mortem organ donation in society, researchers commonly observe a substantial gap between the claimed willingness to donate post-mortem and joining the register of potential organ donors ( 2 , 3 ). The analysis of indicators available in three nationwide surveys – two conducted at the European level and one at the Slovenian level ( 4 ) – revealed the existence of such a gap in Slovenia as well. The proportions of respondents who claimed to be willing to donate their organs after death was 61%, 55% and 75% in two Eurobarometer surveys (2009 and 2014) and in the 2013 Slovenian
Valentina Prevolnik Rupel, Renata Erker and Marko Divjak
. Similarly, surprising results regarding the gender differences have also been found in previous large-scale studies ( 8 , 9 ). The authors of these studies claim that observed gender disparities could not be attributable to different heart failure prevalence across gender, different proportions of male and female subgroups in study samples, or to any other similar contextual factors, which might indicate that cardiologists adhere to different standards and/or guidelines while treating either male or female patients. Unfortunately, the present study cannot provide a solid
possible, patients chose those healthcare providers they perceive as valuable ( 16 ). Numerous researchers ( 23 , 24 , 25 ) have claimed that the perceived service value set by a patient represents an overall assessment of a health service, which is based on patients’ perceptions of what was gained and what was invested. As the consequences of perceived service value for patients, various authors have listed ( 26 , 27 , 28 ) patients’ satisfaction and loyalty.
In general, perceived service quality is one of the most important benefits for the customer. In
Noemi Robles, Silvia Matrai, Vanesa Carral Bielsa, Joan Colom and Antoni Gual
Background: Europe presents the highest rates of alcohol consumption per inhabitant, with an impact exceeding 6% of the DALYs lost. However, European researchers claim that most of the research in the alcohol field is conducted outside Europe. In order to assess this claim, a review of international indexed publications on alcohol marketing and availability, two cornerstones of alcohol public health policy, was performed.
Methods: A systematic search on Medline (1990-2009) was conducted by two independent researchers in order to identify articles that studied the availability or marketing of alcoholic beverages. The publication year and country of affiliation of the first author were recorded. The type and number of publications were classified according to the geographic area where the research was conducted.
Results: Of the 990 retrieved articles on availability, 214 were found relevant; of the 828 articles obtained for marketing, 249 were classified as relevant. Most of the alcohol availability- and marketing-related articles were published in the USA (52.3% and 59.0%, respectively). A total of 22.5% of the availability studies and 15.7% of the marketing studies were published by a first author affiliated to a European country. The European alcohol-related references have been generated mostly in the UK, the Scandinavian countries and the Netherlands (73.4% of all European publications).
Conclusion: Despite the impact of alcohol in Europe, most of the research is conducted in other countries. Moreover, the volume of research is unequal among the European countries as well. European public health research in the alcohol field should be encouraged, involving countries with scant or non-existent research.
Background: The assessment of the incidence of acute gastrintestinal infections (AGI) derived from the notifications underestimates the real burden of AGI. The symptoms of AGI are usually not severe enough for consultation with a physician. The more exact data on the burden of AGI are gained through cross sectional population-based studies. To estimate the burden of AGI in Slovenia, a period prevalence study was conducted.
Methods: A simple random sample consisting of 5000 Slovenian inhabitants was chosen to whom a questionnaire was sent in July 2011. The participants were asked if they experienced AGI in June 2011 according to a symptombased case definition. The participants were asked to fill in the questionnaire on a paper or via a web page created for study purposes.
Results: Out of 5000 participants, 1500 filled out the questionnaire, giving a response rate of 33%. The number of women responding out-numbered men - there were 58% female and 42% male responders. 66 (4.4%) of the responders claimed to have had AGI in June 2011. The incidence rate of acute AGI was therefore 4400 per 100,000 inhabitants. Comparatively, the incidence rate of notified cases in the same month was 78.9 per 100,000 inhabitants. The difference between the incidence of AGI, based on notified cases and incidence, calculated in the first Slovenian cross sectional study, showed that one out of 56 cases of AGI in the community has been notified.
Conclusion: the incidence of AGI among the Slovenian population, based on data from our cross sectional study, is as expected higher than the incidence calculated from notification data from the same period.
Karmen Erjavec, Katarina Štular and Melita Kovačič
Health product advertising through news in lifestyle magazines
Background: In addition to doctors, the mass media are the key source of information about health issues. It is therefore very important what kind of messages they produce and convey. Some media researchers called attention to paid-for health-related texts, published as editorial content without being labelled as advertisements (now commonly referred to as advertorials). There is a lack of studies investigating the practice of such messages production.
Methods: The aim of the study is to fill the gap in this research field by identifying characteristics of unlabelled health-related advertorials and thus give the readers the mechanisms they need to recognise them. Textual analysis of unlabelled health-related advertorials published by three Slovenian lifestyle magazines was combined with an ethnographic study.
Results: Textual analysis indicated that readers can recognise advertorials by the partial and positive-only presentation of health-related products/services, which are described and promoted by using synonyms of effectiveness. Observation and in-depth interviews showed that the key actors in the production process are advertisers and newspaper marketing agents. Advertisers want to have control over texts presenting their products/services. Marketing agents stress poor financial situation of their magazines. News producers claim that they carry out orders given by advertisers and marketing agents.
Conclusion: By publishing unlabelled advertorials, lifestyle magazines privilege a pharmaceutical-commercial attitude to health. They promote the pharmaceutical industry by presenting it one-sidedly and in a simplified way, and by ascribing to it the capacity to solve health problems of people in a non-problematic way. A more complex social view of health issues, however, is neglected.
Alberto Firenze, Nicola Aleo, Clara Ferrara, Marianna Maranto, Caterina La Cascia and Vincenzo Restivo
The migrants, especially refugees and asylum seekers, are at increased risk of several health problems and they have a rising gradual trend ( 1 ). In 2010 migrants numbered 232 million, which is equivalent to 3% of the world’s population. This is an increase of 77 million in the last 20 years ( 2 ). In particular, in 2011 441,300 asylum applications were recorded in 44 developed countries, representing 73,300 claims (+20%) more than in 2010 (368,000) ( 3 ). Out of a total, the 38 countries in Europe received 327,200 claims, an increase of
Davorina Petek, Danica Rotar-Pavlič, Janko Kersnik and Igor Švab
Ho PM, Bryson CL, Rumsfeld JS. Medication adherence: its importance in cardiovascular outcomes. Circulation 2009; 119(23): 3028-35.
Karve S, Cleves MA, Helm M, Hudson TJ, West DS, Martin BC. Good and poor adherence: optimal cut-point for adherence measures using administrative claims data. Curr Med Res Opin 2009 Jul 28. [Epub ahead of print].
Balkrishnan R, Rajagopalan R, Camacho FT, Huston Sa, Murray FT, Anderson RT. Predictors of Medication Adherence and Associated
14. Hansen DM, Larson RW, Dworkin JB. What adolescents learn in organized youth activities: a survey of self-reported developmental experiences. J Res Adolesc 2003, 13: 25-55.
15. Bailey R, Armour K, Kirk D. The educational benefits claimed for physical education and school sport: an academic review. Res Paper Educ 2009; 24: 1-27.
16. Mahoney JL, Stattin H. Leisure time activities and adolescent antisocial behavior: The role of structure and social context. J Adolesc 2000; 23: 112-27.
( 9 ).
Hellems and Clarke examined the safety of children with T1DM at school. The study involved 185 parents of children with T1DM attending 153 different schools in Virginia. Their survey study was conducted to determine whether the school staff helped students administer insulin and manage hypoglycaemia, and whether the care was performed in a safe manner. Among the parents, 69% claimed that full-time nurses were employed in schools, and 74% reported that their child with T1DM required assistance when administering insulin ( 10 ).
Kelo et al. created an