al. (2004) tend to support the claim that cognitive enhancing effects of guarana are not solely attributed to the caffeine content of the herb, but to other compounds as well. These two studies report that guarana interventions with low doses of caffeine provided significant improvements in certain cognitive domains.
Results of Low Risk of Bias Studies
In this section of the results, we present the findings of studies with a relatively low risk of bias. Studies included in this section of the results needed to have at least 4/7 ‘low risk’ of bias grades at
Kehinde Kazeem Kanmodi, Olanrewaju Isaac Owoeye, Almu Bello and Linda Ekele Iyadi
The majority (95.1% [116/122]) of the respondents had heard of the term ‘madness’ prior to their participation in the study, only 1 (0.8%) reported that they were not sure if they had ever heard of the term, and 5 (4.1%) reported that they had never heard of it. The two most popular sources of information on madness among those respondents who claimed awareness of madness were ‘book’ (61.2% [71/116]) and ‘doctor’ (44.8% [52/116]) ( Figure 1 ).
Sources of information on madness among those respondents that claimed awareness of
substantially contributed or helped with different aspects of the paper such as providing material or helping with the literature search but do not qualify for full authorship. Authorship would indicate that authors have contributed in all aspects and stages of the study, and can claim scientific responsibility and can support its scientific validity.
Role of the references
The reference list should be compiled in line with the authors’ instructions of the journal for which the publication is intended. Literature that is relevant, necessary and sufficient to understand
suicide ( Arafat 2017 ). Reliable and meticulous source of suicide data is out of reach for the researchers, policy maker as well as other individuals. Moreover, as per the legal system, it is still a punishable criminal offence that generates a natural tendency to hide the suicides. Channelising suicide as accidental death is somewhat a common phenomenon to avoid the aversive legal consequences, because mostly people have been harassed by the legal agencies instead of getting trails for suicidal events. Sometimes, relatives claim suicides as homicides without any firm
number of previous suicide attempts was found to be lower than that of other patients with mental disorders ( Apter et al. (2003) . However, such claims are based on cross sectional and retrospective studies that are prone to selection and awareness bias. Sadly, there are no follow up studies that have included different psychiatric disorders including OCD and would allow a relevant valid comparison.
Risk factors for suicidality in OCD
Psychiatric comorbidity seems to be the most common risk factor for attempted and completed suicide. According to Fernandez de la
of playing but the ability or inability to find successful coping strategies to the stress this generates that may be at the heart of the findings of this study. The study has the advantage that it assessed local concepts of mental health in post-war Uganda, but, on the other hand, it makes comparisons with future studies in other countries difficult if not impossible. As a summary, the general claim that playing soccer improves mental health and well-being in non-professionals must be challenged before relevant studies can provide the necessary positive evidence