( Abernethy and Brown, 2016 ) supporting performance gains for Division I football programs training with an FB, studies have not been conducted to support such claims. With the adoption of FBs in these programs, it is important to assess how the FB may potentially hinder or promote these physiological adaptations based on biomechanical mechanisms. The results of this study provide insight into these phenomena by partially confirming the hypotheses that the increased bar end weight displacements for a given time required increased velocities for the same time, and hence
was redistributed to make 9 sets of 4 with 52.5 s of inter-set rest ( Tufano et al., 2017b ). Although the exercises and loads were different between that study and the present one, it may be possible that rest-redistribution is particularly effective when exaggerating a shorter, but more frequent set concept, yet future studies should be conducted to substantiate such a claim. Additionally, the results of the present study expand on previous findings demonstrating that the differences between RR and TS were more profound when the velocity and power thresholds were
Mário J. Costa, Lúcia Cruz, Ana Simão and Tiago M. Barbosa
reflected lower RPE values in comparison to the remaining exercises. This suggests that the perceived exertion by the participants may not necessarily represent the cardiovascular acute response triggered by each exercise. One might claim that the need of synchronising both arms and legs in Ski makes it more challenging to perform, leading to a drop in the perceived effort. Perhaps, the participants adapted their motor actions changing the range of motion to follow the pace set. This may lead to a lower perceived exertion regardless of the cardiovascular response achieved
Andrzej Mastalerz, Paulina Szyszka, Weronika Grantham and Jerzy Sadowski
appropriate ending of the fourth pull of the lift. Although no significant differences were found in the remaining phases, body kinematics in unsuccessful lifts were slower and the angles in the knee and hip joints were smaller in the entire movement. On the contrary, Gourgoulis et al. (2002) claimed that the appropriate beginning of the lift was the key factor determining a successful lift.
The differences between these findings and the present study most probably result from the choice of research material, as well as the competition level. Finally, in the present
progressive sequence that starts with a thrust of lower limbs, a forward rotation of the pelvis, followed by the trunk and thereafter the throwing arm. A recent review identified several constraints (torque reversal, biarticular muscles, stretch-shortening cycle, interaction torques, growth, motor development and evolution) likely to contribute to its ubiquity in throwing and striking motions of the upper limb ( Serrien and Baeyens, 2017 ).
Many claims have been made about the relevance of this sequence for sports practitioners in terms of performance enhancement and
Sporting Recommendations for Teaching Fair Play: A Logical and Evolutionary Account
In this paper I argue for a cross-disciplinary approach to teaching sport ethics. I call this a logical and evolutionary account because information that emanates from cell biology, anthropology, philosophy and everywhere in between, I claim, is needed in developing effective fair play pedagogies. The gist of the argument is this: We need to teach smarter, not just harder. Teaching smarter, I say, comes from an understanding of human nature and the logic of sport. I discuss animal behavior, emotions, genetic predispositions, human evolution, the structure of games, philosophical idealism, and other factors in producing five recommendations for teaching sport ethics.
While the philosophy of sport has registered significant gains in stature over the past 40 years, and while its future looks bright quite apart from any enhanced interventions by ourselves, I suggest that the philosophy of sport should still matter more. The achievement of this end, I argue, can be expedited by heeding Spinoza's philosophy of unity, Merleau-Ponty's emphasis on embodiment, and Dewey's focus on the aesthetics of experience. While other philosophers and their works might be used for the same purpose, I claim that it would be difficult to find three more accommodating allies. The major portion of the essay is devoted to defending this assertion.
The topic of leadership has attracted considerable interest amongst academics and practitioners. Much of the interest in the area of leadership is based on explicit and implicit claims that leadership styles are linked to organizational performance. This study aimed to examine the transformational leadership style among women sports leaders in the Kingdom of Bahrain. A total of 16 female sports leaders from the Kingdom of Bahrain participated in this study. The Multi-factor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) was used to determine the transformational leadership style of individuals. A demographic questionnaire was also administered to collect participants’ personal data. The results indicated that transformational leadership style is moderate among women sports leaders in the Kingdom of Bahrain, thus we need to develop the leadership skills of women sports leaders in the Kingdom of Bahrain.
This article constitutes a strictly cognitive and completely non-ideological moral (or rather, amoral) manifesto that makes no value judgments. The article concerns relationships that, according to sport enthusiasts with varying levels of competence, occur between sport and normative ethics. The author of this article supports a standpoint he terms ethical negationism that rejects the need for moral rules to externally support and bolster the rules of sport competition. The author assumes that the rules of sport play and competition are, and should be, completely amoral and independent from ethics. While this article is a fully autonomous ethical manifesto, it also constitutes an introduction to other articles in this issue of the journal arguing that sport competition takes place beyond the scope of moral good and evil.
The author debates value judgments commonly held by sport enthusiasts who, albeit presumably driven by noble intentions, take great effort to bolster the formal, functional, and axiological status of sport. Most sport enthusiasts claim that sport has a unique moral and normative mission to propagate intuitively understood religious and non-religious good. They argue that sport constitutes something more than sport play and competition. The author rejects this point of view and assumes that normative ethics is unnecessary because what only matters is strictly following the rules of competition (referred to as pure play) and skillfully and praxeologically (i.e., effectively) using them during play, thus working towards the assumptions and aims of a given sport activity.
The study investigated student involvement in sports as part of co-curricular activities in the school and outside, and the effect of parental support upon their child’s participation in sport. The purpose of the study was to investigate in-depth the views of year 11 students from six Australian schools about their parents’ influence on their participation in sport. The schools agreed to allow their students to participate on a voluntary basis. The primary data were gathered from 111 students in the form of written personal statements in response to the researcher’s open-ended guideline questions, based on the humanistic sociological approach of studying respondents’ personal perspectives on a particular phenomenon. The 80% of respondents who claimed to play sport were involved in a total of 23 different sports, with soccer being the most frequently mentioned (29%). The 20% of respondents who did not play sport all attended schools where participation in sport was not compulsory. Parental support for sports participation was evident in 89% of their comments, but only 11% of parents played an active role. The negative family constraints identified by 15% of respondents referred to issues such as lack of parental interest in sport, concerns about safety, maintaining a balance between sport and other areas of life, and the cost involved