the Council, and repealing Commission Directive 87/250/EEC, Council Directive 90/496/EEC, Commission Directive 1999/10/EC, Directive 2000/13/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council, Commission Directives 2002/67/EC and 2008/5/EC and Commission Regulation (EC) No 608/2004 [displayed 15 March 2015]. Available at http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/en/ALL/?uri=CELEX:32011R1169
5. Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 December 2006 on the nutritional and health claims made on foods [displayed 15
-mortem organ donation in society, researchers commonly observe a substantial gap between the claimed willingness to donate post-mortem and joining the register of potential organ donors ( 2 , 3 ). The analysis of indicators available in three nationwide surveys – two conducted at the European level and one at the Slovenian level ( 4 ) – revealed the existence of such a gap in Slovenia as well. The proportions of respondents who claimed to be willing to donate their organs after death was 61%, 55% and 75% in two Eurobarometer surveys (2009 and 2014) and in the 2013 Slovenian
Educational strategies often derive from ideas of eminent founders. They convey traditional conceptions of good practice and professional identity. However, the environment changes dramatically. Megatrends such as multimorbidity, staff shortage, claims for outcome proofs, expectations of the Millennials, and also digitalization produce slow but steady efects. Yet, the question if education adequately tackles the challenges is avoided. Strategy papers show that arrangements and instruments have been adapted, but not contents.
Deficits are visible primarily in facing the digital transformation which goes along with the implementation of industrial management models. Staf shortage and rising demands ease the introduction of digital assistants and robots also in Europe. Those entering a health profession shall have androids as colleagues. One should, therefore, not expect that conventional concepts about caregiving as exclusive human relation building will persist. In addition, professional may experience a hurtful transition from evidence-based to algorithm-based practice.
Discussions about digital transformation are strikingly lopsided. Efficiency, cost containment and safety are prominent arguments, some also promise more time for patients. Besides the aspect of being replaced, it is not asked what happens to the individuals and professionals. One could e. g. ask in which way artificial intelligence shapes human interaction and professional practice, participation, self-determination, patient orientation, therapeutic strategies and adherence. Instead of improving skills for tablets and tools, education should ask how professions and professionals can adequately be prepared to co-work with machines which may take decisions and conduct processes, and which may be considered more reliable colleagues by employers.
Marjorie C Weiss, Jo Platt, Ruth Riley and Susan Horrocks
-social strategies’ that GPs used to accommodate prescribing by other health care professionals that also acted to maintain medical hegemony. These micro-social strategies included patients’ and supplementary prescribers’ perception of doctors as being hierarchically superior and doctors’ denigration of most routine prescribing.
However, while medical hegemony may still pervade, this does not mean that change has not occurred, particularly in primary care. Abbott (1988) argued that occupations compete by making jurisdictional claims for areas of work. These jurisdictional
Valentina Prevolnik Rupel, Andrej Srakar and Kim Rand
set in the region ( 33 ).
Further analysis of the differences between the first two TTO based value sets in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) is recommended – it has always been claimed that CEE countries display more similar values of health states, which differ from value sets in Western European countries, however, the first glance at both value sets does not confirm such speculations.
The main limitation of the study is the year of the data collection: the completion of the valuation study has been substantially delayed (from the data collection in 2005), as
Erna Schönthaler, Petra Schwab, Monika Zettel-Tomenendal and Valentin Ritschl
interested in reading brief summaries of evidence or clinical guidelines than in searching and appraising literature themselves. Also, Lin et al. (2010 , p. 164) claimed that ‘clinicians must have readily available, relevant, and concisely summarized evidence’ to embrace EBP.
The participating therapists seemed to be very eager for knowledge, but one can expect that they would not have produced so many CATs on their own. Therefore, the CAT service might be seen as an efficient use of resources, as someone who is trained in searching and appraising will take much less
Introduction. Behaviour according to the ethical principles is meaningful for shaping of nurses’ ethical and professional attitude. Contact between the nurse and the sick child requires an ethical model and professional attitude, excellent politeness and sensitivity.
Aim. Assessment of ethical attitudes in the opinion of pediatric nurses.
Material and method. Research was conducted among 133 nurses working in two hospitals in Łodz: in the Clinical Hospital No. 4 of Medical University and in the Institute of Polish Mother’s Health Center. The study used questionnaire of own design. Pearson correlation index determination was used for statistical analysis of the results.
Results and conclusions. More than half examined nurses (63.4%) was able to give a correct definition of professional ethics. The nursing profession was not connected only with earnings in the opinion of 86.4% nurses. Most respondents (56.8%) have admitted that nurses not always behave ethically. Too low salary was the most often mentioned reason (67%) for not ethical behaviour. High sense of responsibility and patience are the main features which mus distinguish the nurse. More than half of the respondents would choose this profession again. Participants claimed most often (95.5%) that nurses should deepen their knowledge permanently, but not everyone even in this group, does it.
Giordano Paola, Bennett C Rachel and Driessen Bernd
The Pain Trace™ device can detect changes in the skin's electrical potentials claimed to be associated with pain related alterations in the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system activity. Positive voltages represent the absence of major pain, whereas negative voltages represent moderate to severe pain. Unlike in humans and horses, no baseline skin potential recordings have been reported in dogs. In study Part 1 baseline skin potentials were recorded in healthy dogs and compared to readings obtained in human volunteers. In dogs, data were recorded with electrodes placed at three separate sites: neck, axilla, and thorax. In humans, data were collected from the palms. Readings over a 90-second period were averaged and comparisons between groups were performed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. All voltage recordings were positive. Readings in dogs had greater variability. Recordings from the thorax were more homogeneous, this being the reason why this site was chosen for study Part 2. No significant differences in recordings were noted between pain-free dogs and humans. The main hypothesis was that shifting from positive to negative skin potential voltages serves as an indicator of canine patients sensing moderate to severe pain. Therefore, we obtained preoperative readings from dogs with cranial cruciate ligament disease that were experiencing associated persistent pain, and compared these data with readings from pain-free dogs (thorax). In dogs undergoing surgery, all pre-surgery voltage readings were positive and thus no consistent relationship between skin potential recordings and pain perception could be established. Further investigation is needed to confirm any relationship between skin potential and pain severity in dogs.
Aneta Warmuz-Wancisiewicz, Jolanta Witanowska, Paulina Ufniarz, Andrzej Knapik, Bożena Stemplewska and Beata Jarecka
Introduction. Steadily growing market of medical services currently presents the patient as a client of medical facility. Narrowing the medical market to the pediatric ward, apart from meeting the needs and care of the sick child, the main goal is a good opinion of the parent. Aim. The aim of the study was to obtain the opinions of parents of hospitalized children about the professional tasks of pediatric nurses. Materials and methods. The survey was conducted in the group of 60 parents of children hospitalized in pediatric wards with the use of authors’ own questionnaire. Results. The majority of respondents (80%) believe that the continuing presence of a parent in the hospital is beneficial for the medical treatment of the child. The number of 76.7% believe that their presence in the hospital makes the child not feeling lonely while suffering. As many as 93.3% of parents said that nurses explain them all doubts and that they attempt to work with them for the recovery of the child. When it comes to 90% of respondents, they said that the aid and information on the care of a sick child received from the nurses are sufficient. As many as 68.3% believe that the nursing staff has a high level of professional skills, and 93.3% - that nurses provide physical and mental safety to hospitalized children. When it comes to 91.7% of parents, they said that nurses have respectful approach to the little patients. The working conditions of nurses in the opinion of 68.3% of respondents have an impact on their child care. Conclusions. Caregivers positively evaluate the work done by nurses in the wards. Nurses spend with children the right amount of time. In the opinion of parents, working conditions of nurses have an impact on their work with the child. Most parents claim that the work of nurses is responsible, physically and mentally hard, and it requires patience and composure.